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Surface Anatomy. Palpation – feeling internal structures through the skin “Living anatomy” – provides information about Palpation of arterial pulses Skeleton, muscles, and blood vessels Sounds of the heart and lungs Where to give injections. The Head.

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surface anatomy
Surface Anatomy
  • Palpation – feeling internal structures through the skin
  • “Living anatomy” – provides information about
    • Palpation of arterial pulses
    • Skeleton, muscles, and blood vessels
    • Sounds of the heart and lungs
    • Where to give injections
the head
The Head
  • Cranium – selected structures felt through the skin
    • Superciliary arches
    • External occipital protuberance
    • Mastoid process
    • Temporalis muscle – at temple region
    • Frontalis muscle
      • Feel wrinkling of the forehead when eyebrows are raised
the head1
The Head
  • Face – selected structures felt through the skin
    • Lacrimal fossa
    • Root and bridge of the nose
    • Auricle of the ear
    • Zygomatic arch
    • Masseter muscle
    • Mandible
    • Temporomandibular joint
the neck
The Neck
  • Skeletal landmarks
    • Spinous processes of cervical vertebrae
      • C7 is particularly prominent (vertebra prominens)
    • Hyoid bone – in the anterior, superior neck
    • Laryngeal prominence – the “Adam’s Apple”
    • Cricoid cartilage – inferior to the laryngeal prominence
    • Jugular notch – depression in the superior part of the sternum
the neck1
The Neck

Figure 11.27

muscles of the neck
Muscles of the Neck
  • Sternocleidomastoid – most prominent neck muscle
    • Sternal head
    • Clavicular head
  • Deep to the sternocleidomastoid
    • Common carotid artery
    • Internal jugular vein
  • Trapezius – posterior aspect of the neck
triangles of the neck
Triangles of the Neck
  • The sternocleidomastoid muscles divide the neck
    • Anterior triangle
    • Posterior triangle

Figure 11.28a

the trunk
The Trunk
  • The trunk consists of the
    • Thorax
    • Abdomen
    • Pelvis and perineum
the thorax
The Thorax
  • Sternum – portions felt through the skin
    • Manubrium, xiphoid process, and sternal angle
  • Midaxillary line – line from the center of the axilla onto the lateral thoracic wall
  • Midclavicular line – vertical line from midpoint of the clavicle to the groin
muscles of the thorax
Muscles of the Thorax
  • Pectoralis major
  • Serratus anterior
the abdomen
The Abdomen
  • Structures felt through the skin
    • Iliac crest
    • Anterior superior iliac spine
    • Inguinal ligament
      • Runs medially from anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle
    • Pubic crest
inguinal hernia
Inguinal Hernia

Figure 11.30

muscles and other abdominal surface features
Muscles and other Abdominal Surface Features
  • Linea alba
    • The “white line” extending from xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis
  • Rectus abdominis
    • Linea semilunaris – lateral margin of rectus abdominis
the pelvis and perineum
The Pelvis and Perineum
  • Four bony structures define the perineum
    • Pubic symphysis
    • Two ischial tuberosities
    • Coccyx
the back
The Back
  • Posterior median furrow – vertical groove along the midline
  • Spinous processes of vertebrae
  • Spine of the scapula
    • Medial end is opposite T3
  • Medial border of the scapula
the back1
The Back
  • Inferior angle of the scapula
  • Iliac crests
    • Supracristal line – intersects L4
  • Sacrum – superior to cleft in the buttocks
  • Coccyx – posterior to the anus
muscles of the back
Muscles of the Back
  • Trapezius
  • Latissimus dorsi
  • Erector spinae
upper limb and shoulder
Upper Limb and Shoulder
  • The Axilla
    • Base of the axilla – where armpit hair grows
    • Deep to the axilla – axillary lymph nodes and blood vessels
    • Anterior axillary fold – pectoralis major
    • Posterior axillary fold –latissimus dorsi and teres major
shoulder and arm
Shoulder and Arm

Figure 11.32a, b

the shoulder
The Shoulder
  • Acromion – lateral end of the spine of the scapula
  • Acromioclavicular joint
  • Deltoid muscle
    • Covers the greater tubercle of the humerus

Figure 11.33

the arm
The Arm
  • The region between the shoulder and elbow
  • Humerus
    • Palpated through skin along its entire length
  • Biceps brachii
  • Medial bicipital groove
    • The medial boundary of the biceps brachii
  • Triceps brachii
the arm1
The Arm

Figure 11.34

the elbow
The Elbow
  • Lateral and medial epicondyles of the humerus
    • Ulnar nerve – “funny bone” runs across medial epicondyle
  • Olecranon process of the ulna
  • Cubital fossa – (antecubital fossa)
    • Forms anterior surface of forearm
forearm
Forearm
  • Bones
    • Ulna – palpate entire length
      • Styloid process and head – distal end
  • Radius – partly covered in muscle
    • Head of the radius – proximal end
    • Styloid process – distal end
muscles of the forearm
Muscles of the Forearm
  • Flexor muscles – anterior forearm
    • Flexor carpi radialis
    • Palmaris longus
      • This muscle is absent in about 30% of people
  • Extensor muscles – posterior forearm
other structures of the forearm
Other Structures of the Forearm
  • Anatomical snuff box bordered by
    • Extensor pollicis brevis
    • Extensor pollicis longus
the hand
The Hand
  • Dorsum of hand
    • Dorsal venous network
    • Tendons of extensor digitorum
  • Palmar surface
    • Thenar eminence (not labeled on figure 11.35b)
    • Hypothenar eminence (see figure 11.17a–c )
    • Pisiform bone
gluteal region
Gluteal Region
  • Iliac crests
  • Posterior superior iliac spine
  • Sacroiliac joint
  • Prominences of the buttocks
    • “Cheeks” of the buttocks
    • Formed from subcutaneous fat and the gluteal muscles
the gluteal region
The Gluteal Region

Figure 11.37

lower limb and gluteal region
Lower Limb and Gluteal Region
  • Natal cleft (gluteal cleft)
    • Vertical midline groove between “cheeks”
  • Gluteal fold
    • Horizontal fold below each “cheek”
  • Ischial tuberosities
  • Greater trochanter of the femur
    • Located at the lateral hip
thigh
Thigh
  • Medial and lateral condyles of the femur
  • Patella
  • Three groups of muscles
    • Quadriceps femoris – anterior thigh
      • Vastus lateralis – injection site
    • Adductors – medial thigh
    • Hamstrings – posterior thigh
thigh1
Thigh

Figure 11.38b

the thigh
The Thigh
  • The Femoral Triangle
    • Superior border – inguinal ligament
    • Inferior borders
      • Sartorius
      • Adductor longus
  • Popliteal fossa
    • Diamond-shaped hollow on posterior knee
      • Defined by borders of “hamstring” tendons and gastrocnemius
leg and foot
Leg and Foot
  • Palpate patella to find the patellar ligament
  • Structures of the proximal leg
    • Tibial tuberosity
    • Lateral and medial condyles of the tibia
    • Head of the fibula
  • Structures of the distal leg
    • Medial malleolus
    • Lateral malleolus
leg and foot1
Leg and Foot

Figure 11.40a, c

muscle groups of the leg
Muscle Groups of the Leg
  • Posterior calf muscles
    • Gastrocnemius and soleus
      • Calcaneal tendon – inferior end of the soleus and gastrocnemius
  • Anterior compartment muscles
    • Tibialis anterior
    • Extensor digitorum
    • Fibularis
slide46
Foot
  • Tendons on the dorsal surface of the foot
    • Extensor digitorum longus tendon
    • Extensor hallucis longus
slide47
Foot

Figure 11.40d