NEGOTIATION • TWO TYPES OF NEGOTIATION • 1.Distributive (Competitive) • Parties have different and independent goals • fixed-sum • win-lose • positional
NEGOTIATION • 2. Integrative (Collaborative) • Parties work together toward common or compatible goal • Resolution of conflict • Advancement of shared vision • Recognize Interdependence • Deal constructively with difference • Joint ownership of resolution
NEGOTIATION • Distributive Integrative • Soft Hard Problem solving • Avoid conflict Win Solve the problem • Friends adversaries Professionals • Change easily Dig in Focus on interests • Concede easily Concede Don’t concede ? • ---------- stubbornly Invent options
NEGOTIATION • Soft Hard Problem Solving • Avoid contest Win contest Use standards • of will of will • Make Demand Separate people concessionsconcessions and problem • Back down Make threats Know others walkaway • Commit early Commit early Draft as you go • draft late draft late commit at end
Tactics and Techniques • 1. Delay: When you have the power, when you don’t , delay • 2. Silence and Bracketing: Direct opponent’s attention to a certain topic and then listen. Gains information • 3. Limited Authority: Opponent lacks authority, needs to get approval for agreement.
Tactics and Techniques • 4. “No”: Value of a “no” is you can ask why. Answer reveals what he will do. • 5. Expectation and control: “This part is not negotiable, but that part is”. Redirects the negotiation.
Tactics and Techniques • 6. Rationale: Be able to explain positions and concessions. Gives satisfaction to other party. • 7. Message sending: Recognize verbal, visual and written messages. (i.e. nervous laugh, jiggling foot, crying.
Tactics and Techniques • 8. Threats: To be effective threats must be believable. Credible if reasonably proportionate to action it is intended to effect. Never make a threat unless prepared to carry it out. Affirmative promises usually better that negative threats
Tactics and Techniques • 9. Boulwarism: Named for Lemuel Boulware, former V.P. for labor relations at General Electric. Best offer take it or leave it bargaining. Deprives opponent of participation. Reduces chance of successful resolution. • 10. Mutt and Jeff routine: Good guy /bad guy. Reaonable / unreasonsble teams
Tactics and Techniques • 11. Never accept first offer. • 12. Flinch: For most people visual overrides auditory. • 13. Avoid confrontation: Especially at beginning of process. Intensifies opponents desire to be proven right. • 14. The Vise: “You’ll have to do better then that.” Response, “How much better?”
Tactics and Techiques • 15.“Split the difference” : Never suggest, let your opponent suggest. Can be caught by appeal to higher authority. • 16. Set aside Gambit: Set aside difficult issues to be decided later. Get agreement on smaller issues which creates momentum.
Tactics and Techniques • 17. Avoid last minute “nibbles”: You are most vulneralbe after you think negtiationis completed, but other side then wants more concessions. • 18. Maintain Walk-away power.
Optimize Probability of Success • 1. Do your homework : Prepare • 2. Go to the top: Negotiate with those who • have authority. • 3. Build relationships whenever possible: • Easier to communicate with a friend • than with a stranger or enemy. • 4. Avoid quick concessions
5. Accentuate the positive: Frame negative • points in positive ways. • 6. Maintain your composure: • 7. Don’t give up: What appears to be a dead • end may only be a corner.
Integrative Negotiation / Getting to Yes • Bargain Over Interests Not Positions • Separate People From the Problem • Generate Options Before Deciding • Base Results On Objective Criteria
POSITIONS / INTERESST • POSITIONSINTERESTS • Things you say Underlying you want Motivations • Demands Needs and Concerns • What you will Fears and Aspirations • or won’t do
DISCOVERING INTERESTS • Look behind positions for underlying reason • Put yourself in other person’s shoes • Ask : “Why?” • Ask “Why not? What would be wrong with…”