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Nomenclature : Naming Chemicals

Nomenclature : Naming Chemicals

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Nomenclature : Naming Chemicals

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  1. Nomenclature: Naming Chemicals PO43- phosphate ion HC2H3O2 Acetic Acid SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of "Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck "Background Printing")! C2H3O2- acetate ion

  2. Before naming…. • Some things you MUST know to be successful…. You really need to commit these things to memory

  3. Ions • Atoms or groups of atoms • Cations- - get by electron(s). • Anions- - get by electron(s). • Ionic bonding- held together • Ionic solids are called

  4. Common Ions of Elements

  5. Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE!!!! +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 0 Cd+2

  6. Polyatomic Ions • Groups of atoms that have • Ions that contain bonded atoms * NO3- * NO2- • Yes, you have to memorize them. • List in your yellow folder: memorize this list!!!!

  7. Patterns for Polyatomic Ions • -ate ion • = ClO3- • -ate ion plus 1 O  same charge, per- prefix • = ClO4- • -ate ion minus 1 O  same charge, -ite suffix • = ClO2- • -ate ion minus 2 O  same charge, hypo- prefix, -ite suffix • = ClO-

  8. Polyatomic Ions You can make additional polyatomic ions by adding a H+ to the ion! CO3-2 is carbonate HCO3– is H2PO4– is HSO4– is

  9. Forms of Chemical Bonds • There are 3 forms bonding atoms: • Ionic—complete from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains) • metal and non metal or polyatomics • The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by • Covalent—some valence electrons • we will just learn the rules for 2 non-metals. • Metallic – holds Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent.

  10. COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND Na+ + Cl- --> NaCl A neutral compound requires equal number of + and - charges.

  11. Ionic compounds • If the is - Name the metal (cation) just write the name. • If the is - name it. • If the is - name it but change the ending to –ide. • If the is - just name it

  12. Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds: • 1. first, then • 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element • Ca2+ = • 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide • Cl- = • CaCl2 =

  13. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds • Examples: NaCl ZnI2 Al2O3

  14. Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds: Na3N KBr Al2O3 MgS

  15. Transition Metals Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a to indicate the on the individual ion. 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ Cu+,Cu2+ Fe2+, Fe3+ copper(I) ion iron(II) ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion

  16. Names of Variable Ions These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because : anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al (You should already know the charges on these!) Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and themetalsin groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. FeCl3(Fe3+) iron (III) chloride CuCl (Cu+ ) copper (I) chloride SnF4 (Sn4+) tin (IV) fluoride PbCl2 (Pb2+) lead (II) chloride Fe2S3 (Fe3+) iron (III) sulfide

  17. Special names Cations Some Type II cations have a name using the “old” system as well as the “new system”. The old system, still widely used, adds to the root or stem of the Latin name of the metal the suffixes –ous and –ic. These represent the lower and higher charges respectively.

  18. Old Names for Type II ions

  19. Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals(you do not have to memorize these)

  20. Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr2 CuCl SnO2 Fe2O3 Hg2S

  21. Naming Ternary Compounds • Contains at least 3 elements • There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion (it helps to circle the ions) • Examples: NaNO3 K2SO4 Al(HCO3)3

  22. Learning Check Match each set with the correct name: 1.Na2CO3 a) magnesium sulfite MgSO3 b) magnesium sulfate MgSO4 c) sodium carbonate 2 . Ca(HCO3)2 a) calcium carbonate CaCO3 b) calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 c) calcium bicarbonate

  23. Name the following: Na2O CaCO3 PbS2 Sn3N2 Cu3PO4 HgF2 Mixed Practice!

  24. Covalent compounds • Two words, with prefixes. • Prefixes • First element , except mono. • Second element,

  25. PREFIX mono- di- tri- tetra- penta- hexa- hepta- octa- nona- deca- NUMBER Molecular Nomenclature Prefixes

  26. Molecular Nomenclature: Examples • CCl4 • N2O • SF6

  27. More Molecular Examples • arsenic trichloride • dinitrogen pentoxide • tetraphosphorus decoxide

  28. Learning Check Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds. CO CO2 PCl3 CCl4 N2O

  29. Learning Check 1. P2O5a) phosphorus oxide b) phosphorus pentoxide c) diphosphorus pentoxide 2. Cl2O7 a) dichlorine heptoxide b) dichlorine oxide c) chlorine heptoxide 3. Cl2 a) chlorine b) dichlorine c) dichloride

  30. Mixed Review Name the following compounds: 1. CaO a) calcium oxide b) calcium(I) oxide c) calcium (II) oxide d) calcium monoxide 2. SnCl4 a) tin tetrachloride b) tin(II) chloride c) tin(IV) chloride 3. N2O3 a) nitrogen oxide b) dinitrogen trioxide c) nitrogen trioxide

  31. Common Names • A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. • Chemicals that should always be named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are: • H2O • NH3

  32. Mixed Practice • BaI2 • P4S3 • Ca(OH)2 • FeCO3 • Na2Cr2O7 • I2O5 • Cu(ClO4)2 • CS2 • B2Cl4

  33. Acid Nomenclature • Acids • Compounds that form • Formulas usually begin • In order to be an acid instead of a gas, binary acids must be (dissolved in water) • Ternary acids are ALL aqueous • Two types of acids:

  34. Naming acids • If the acid doesn’t have oxygen • add • change the suffix -ide • HCl • H2S • HCN

  35. Naming acids • If the formula has oxygen in it • write the name of the anion, but change • ate to • ite to • Watch out for sulfuric and sulfurous • H2CrO4 • HMnO4 • HNO2

  36. Acid Nomenclature Binary  Ternary An easy way to remember which goes with which… “In the cafeteria, you ”

  37. Acid Nomenclature • HBr (aq) • H2CO3 • H2SO3 • 2 elements, -ide • 3 elements, -ate • 3 elements, -ite

  38. Acid Nomenclature Flowchart

  39. Acid Nomenclature • hydrofluoric acid • sulfuric acid • nitrous acid • 2 elements • 3 elements, -ic • 3 elements, -ous

  40. Name ‘Em! • HI (aq) • HCl • H2SO3 • HNO3 • HIO4

  41. Formulas of Ionic Compounds Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions atoms ions Na + F  Na+ + F- NaF sodium + fluorine sodium fluoride formula Charge balance: 1+ 1- = 0

  42. Writing Ionic Formulas Formulas are written to make the compound have a neutral charge overall. If the oxidation numbers or charges do not balance, you “Criss-Cross”.

  43. Writing a Formula Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba2+ and Cl. Solution: 1. Balance charge with 2. Write the of first, and the 3. Write the number of ions needed as subscripts

  44. Criss-Crossing Examples: Pb2+ N3- (the charges do not balance) Pb2+ N3- The 2 and the 3 are brought down to the opposite element

  45. Learning Check Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na+, S2- a) NaS b) Na2S c) NaS2 2. Al3+, Cl- a) AlCl3 b) AlCl c) Al3Cl 3. Mg2+, N3- a) MgN b) Mg2N3 c) Mg3N2

  46. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Writing Formulas • Write each ion, cation first. Don’t show charges in the final formula. • Overall charge must equal zero. • If charges cancel, just write symbols. • If not, use subscripts to balance charges. • Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion. • Use Roman numerals indicate the ion’s charge when needed (stock system)

  47. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature: You Criss-cross these, too. Sodium Sulfate Na+ and SO4-2 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe+3 and OH- Ammonium carbonate NH4+ and CO3–2

  48. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature: You Criss-cross these, too. Sodium Sulfate Na+ and SO4-2 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe+3 and OH- Ammonium carbonate NH4+ and CO3–2

  49. Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO3 b) Al(NO)3 c) Al(NO3)3 2. copper(II) nitrate a) CuNO3 b) Cu(NO3)2 c) Cu2(NO3) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOH b) Fe3OH c) Fe(OH)3 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH)4 b) Sn(OH)2 c) Sn4(OH)