Chemical Formulas and Naming. Unit 4. Ions. Atoms that have a positive or negative charge To become an ion, an atom gains or loses electrons Cation = positively charged ion; Lose electron (s) Metals form positive ions Anion = negatively charged ion; Gain electron (s). Oxidation Numbers.
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Indicates how many atoms of the preceding element
The coefficient of “3” indicates the number of moleculesCompounds
One carbon and four hydrogen = 5 atoms
Six carbon, twelve hydrogen and six oxygen = 24 atoms total
One sodium, one oxygen and one hydrogen = 3 atoms total
For a compound made from sodium and oxygen.
Sodium is listed first and oxygen second.
For a compound made from nitrogen and calcium.
Calcium is listed first and nitrogen second.
Potassium and nitrogen
Sodium and oxygen
Phosphorus and rubidium
Aluminum and sulfur
Iron (II) chloride
Cobalt (ll) carbonate
Mono = 1
Di = 2
Tri = 3
Penta = 5
Hexa = 6
Octa = 8
Deca = 10
(ex: CaBr2 – 2 Br atoms)
- separates 2 reactants or 2 products
- separates reactants from products; “yields”
- solid state
- liquid state
- aqueous solution
- gaseous state
Formula written above or below yield sign
HgO (s) Hg (l) + O2 (g)
__CaCO3 + __HCl __ CO2 + __CaCl2 + __H2O
1- Synthesis (or Combination)
3- Single displacement reactions
4- Double displacement reaction
(reactant + reactant 1 product)
MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2
CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2
LiO + H2O Li(OH)
(1 Reactant Product + Product)
Carbonates, chlorates, and hydroxides are special case decomposition reactions that do not go to the elements.
Mg + HCl MgCl2 + H2
Ca + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(s) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s)
hydrocarbon + oxygen ----> carbon dioxide and water
CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ----> 2H2O(g) + CO2(g)
2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) ----> 6H20(g) + 4CO2(g)
Edgar Allen Poe’s drooping eyes and mouth are potential signs of CO poisoning.
An easy way to remember which goes with which…
“In the cafeteria, youATEsomethingICky”
Show the bonds between each of the atoms
H C H H C H
CH4 , methane
Name # carbons Structural Formula
Methane 1 CH4
Ethane 2 CH3CH3
Propane 3 CH3CH2CH3
Butane 4 CH3CH2CH2CH3
Pentane 5 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
Name # carbons Structural Formula
Hexane 6 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
Heptane 7 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
Octane 8 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
Nonane 9 CH3 CH2 CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
Decane 10 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
First four prefixes
1. Naming the longest chain (root)
(a) Find the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms.
(b) Select the root that corresponds to the number of carbon atoms in this chain. Add the suffix –ane to the chain root
(c ) If the chain forms a ring, the name is preceded by cyclo-
2. Locate the branches (prefix) and assign them the lowest set of numbers
(a) To specify where the branch occurs along the chain, number the main- chain C atoms consecutively, starting at the end closer to a branch, to achieve the lowest numbers for the branches. Precede each branch
name with the number of the chain C atom to which that branch is
(b) Each branch name consists of a subroot (number of C atoms) and the ending -ylto signify that it is not part of the main chain. Branch names precede the chain name with the number in front. When two or more branches are present, name them in alphabetical order.
(c) If the compound has no branches, the name consists of the root
3. Use di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. to combine similarly named branches
4. Separate numbers with commas and numbers and letters with dashes