The Scientific Method

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# The Scientific Method - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Scientific Method. Explain the steps in the scientific method. Step 1. Ask a Question based on your observations: How, what, why, where, when or who? In order to use the scientific method to answer the question, it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number.

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Scientific Method' - argyle

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### The Scientific Method

Explain the steps in the scientific method.

Step 1
• Ask a Question based on your observations: How, what, why, where, when or who?
• In order to use the scientific method to answer the question, it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number
Step 2
• Conduct background research –
• Doing so will provide you with valuable information and help you choose the best way to conduct your experiment
Step 3
• Construct a hypothesis – an educated guess about the question you are trying to answer.
• State your hypothesis as an “If . . . . . , then. . .” statement.
• You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure.
Step 4
• Test your hypothesis with an experiment.
• Be sure that you are testing only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions constant
Controlled Experiment
• A variable is something that can be changed in the experiment.  Everything else must be the same. Only one variable or condition is changed.
Example
• A good problem question for a controlled experiment can usually be phrased in this form:
• How does one thing (manipulated variable) affect another thing (responding variable)?
• Ex. “How does the temperature of water affect the ability of sugar to dissolve?”
Variables
• Manipulated Variables – the variable that is changed and controlled by the scientist.
• Responding Variables – the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
• MANIPULATED VARIABLE IS THE SAME THING AS THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE;
• RESPONDING VARIABLE IS THE SAME THING AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE;
Other parts of a controlled experiment
• A control group should be used when conducting an experiment.  This group is not tested. It is the standard for comparison.
Other parts of a controlled experiment
• Constant – factors in an experiment that remain the same.
• Why?
• No change so there is no influence on the outcome of the experiment.
Example of Controlled Experiment
• QUESTION:  How will the amount of fertilizer used  affect plant growth?
• HYPOTHESIS:  If the amounts of fertilizer are increased, then there will be greater growth in tomato plants.
• TEST VARIABLE:  The amount of fertilizer used.
Example, continued
• TEST CONSTANTS:
• The seeds must all come from the same package.
• All seeds must be planted in the same sized pots with similar soil.
• All plants must receive exactly the same amount of water and light.
• The temperature should be the same for all test plants.
Control group
• Set one group as the CONTROL GROUP.  This group is not given fertilizer.
• Set up two other test groups.  Once receives a certain amount of fertilizer and the other receives twice as much.
Example, continued
• ANALYSIS OF DATA:  A triple bar graph or line graph of the growth of your plants. CONCLUSION:  Which plant group grew the most?  Why or why not?  What would you do differently next time?
Back to the scientific method
• Step 5: Collect/record data from your experiment
• Step 6: Draw a conclusion – analyze your results to see if your hypothesis is true or false.
In the real world
• Repeated experimentation leads to the formation of a:
• Theory – a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Lab report template
• Lab Report Template
• Title:
• * a brief, concise, yet descriptive title
• Statement of the Problem:
• * What question(s) are you trying to answer? * Include any preliminary observations or background information about the subject
• Hypothesis:
• * Write a possible solution for the problem.* Make sure this possible solution is a complete sentence.* Make sure the statement is testable.
Lab Report Template
• Materials:
• * Make a list of ALL items used in the lab.
• Procedure:
• * Write a paragraph (complete sentences) which explains what you did in the lab. * Your procedure should be written so that anyone else could repeat the experiment.
• Results (Data):
• * This section should include any data tables, observations, or additional notes you make during the lab. * You may attach a separate sheet(s) if necessary.* All tables, graphs and charts should be labeled appropriately
Lab report template
• Conclusions:
• * Accept or reject your hypothesis.* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.* Include a summary of the data - averages, highest, lowest..etc to help the reader understand your results* List one thing you learned and describe how it applies to a real-life situation. *Discuss possible errors that could have occurred in the collection of the data (experimental errors)