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The Scientific Method. Explain the steps in the scientific method. Step 1. Ask a Question based on your observations: How, what, why, where, when or who? In order to use the scientific method to answer the question, it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number.

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the scientific method

The Scientific Method

Explain the steps in the scientific method.

step 1
Step 1
  • Ask a Question based on your observations: How, what, why, where, when or who?
  • In order to use the scientific method to answer the question, it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number
step 2
Step 2
  • Conduct background research –
  • Doing so will provide you with valuable information and help you choose the best way to conduct your experiment
step 3
Step 3
  • Construct a hypothesis – an educated guess about the question you are trying to answer.
  • State your hypothesis as an “If . . . . . , then. . .” statement.
  • You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure.
  • Construct your hypothesis so it will help you answer your original question.
step 4
Step 4
  • Test your hypothesis with an experiment.
  • Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false.
  • Be sure that you are testing only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions constant
controlled experiment
Controlled Experiment
  • A variable is something that can be changed in the experiment.  Everything else must be the same. Only one variable or condition is changed.
example
Example
  • A good problem question for a controlled experiment can usually be phrased in this form:
  • How does one thing (manipulated variable) affect another thing (responding variable)?
  • Ex. “How does the temperature of water affect the ability of sugar to dissolve?”
variables
Variables
  • Manipulated Variables – the variable that is changed and controlled by the scientist.
  • Responding Variables – the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
note about variables
NOTE ABOUT VARIABLES:
  • MANIPULATED VARIABLE IS THE SAME THING AS THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE;
  • RESPONDING VARIABLE IS THE SAME THING AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE;
other parts of a controlled experiment
Other parts of a controlled experiment
  • A control group should be used when conducting an experiment.  This group is not tested. It is the standard for comparison.
other parts of a controlled experiment1
Other parts of a controlled experiment
  • Constant – factors in an experiment that remain the same.
  • Why?
  • No change so there is no influence on the outcome of the experiment.
example of controlled experiment
Example of Controlled Experiment
  • QUESTION:  How will the amount of fertilizer used  affect plant growth?
  • HYPOTHESIS:  If the amounts of fertilizer are increased, then there will be greater growth in tomato plants.
  • TEST VARIABLE:  The amount of fertilizer used.
example continued
Example, continued
  • TEST CONSTANTS:
  • The seeds must all come from the same package.
  • All seeds must be planted in the same sized pots with similar soil.
  • All plants must receive exactly the same amount of water and light.
  • The temperature should be the same for all test plants.
control group
Control group
  • Set one group as the CONTROL GROUP.  This group is not given fertilizer.
  • Set up two other test groups.  Once receives a certain amount of fertilizer and the other receives twice as much.
example continued1
Example, continued
  • ANALYSIS OF DATA:  A triple bar graph or line graph of the growth of your plants. CONCLUSION:  Which plant group grew the most?  Why or why not?  What would you do differently next time?
back to the scientific method
Back to the scientific method
  • Step 5: Collect/record data from your experiment
  • Step 6: Draw a conclusion – analyze your results to see if your hypothesis is true or false.
in the real world
In the real world
  • Repeated experimentation leads to the formation of a:
  • Theory – a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
lab report template
Lab report template
  • Lab Report Template
  • Title:
  • * a brief, concise, yet descriptive title
  • Statement of the Problem:
  • * What question(s) are you trying to answer? * Include any preliminary observations or background information about the subject
  • Hypothesis:
  • * Write a possible solution for the problem.* Make sure this possible solution is a complete sentence.* Make sure the statement is testable.
lab report template1
Lab Report Template
  • Materials:
  • * Make a list of ALL items used in the lab.
  • Procedure:
  • * Write a paragraph (complete sentences) which explains what you did in the lab. * Your procedure should be written so that anyone else could repeat the experiment.
  • Results (Data):
  • * This section should include any data tables, observations, or additional notes you make during the lab. * You may attach a separate sheet(s) if necessary.* All tables, graphs and charts should be labeled appropriately
lab report template2
Lab report template
  • Conclusions:
  • * Accept or reject your hypothesis.* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.* Include a summary of the data - averages, highest, lowest..etc to help the reader understand your results* List one thing you learned and describe how it applies to a real-life situation. *Discuss possible errors that could have occurred in the collection of the data (experimental errors)