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CS 352: Computer Graphics. Input and Interaction. What good is Computer Graphics?. JS1k canvas examples: 1 2 3 4 5 Games, visual demos…of what value? Is there a Christian perspective? Communication of information to the user Data visualization, simulation, GUI

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cs 352 computer graphics

CS 352: Computer Graphics

Input

andInteraction

what good is computer graphics
What good is Computer Graphics?
  • JS1k canvas examples: 12345
  • Games, visual demos…of what value? Is there a Christian perspective?
    • Communication of information to the user

Data visualization, simulation, GUI

Even a word processor is an "interactive graphics program"

    • Communication between users

"Collaborative environments" are hot (multi-player games?)

Social networking is transforming the world…

  • Interaction is an essential component
interaction
Interaction
  • Much of the fun and utility of graphics is in interaction:accepting user input that affects the display
  • Paint programs, modeling, games, word processors, spreadsheets, powerpoint …
    • User initiates input events such as clicking on a menu or drawing a circle
    • Computer response by changing graphical display
projects 3
Projects 3
  • Projects 3 will be a paint program
    • we'll learn 2-D graphics, interaction, event-loop programming, double-buffering simple animation, basic image processing
  • Features:
    • Pen, line, and rectangle tools
    • Color, pen size selectors
    • Image processing (sharpen, blur, detect edges)
    • Open, save images
    • Toolbar and menu for controlling application
how to set up an application ui
How to set up an application UI?
  • How to make a menu?
  • How to make a color picker?
  • How to make a toolbar?
  • How to make toolbar buttons pop in and out?
how to paint
How to paint?
  • How do I make a colored line follow the mouse or fingertip?
  • Interactive prog:
    • Input devices
    • Event handlers
    • Event loop
input devices
Input devices
  • Interaction requires handling input devices
  • Physical:mouse, fingertip, keyboard, joystick, digitizer, accelerometer, head tracker…
  • Logical:
    • Text
    • Locator
    • Valuator (slider)
    • Stroke
    • Color picker
  • How to read?
input devices1
Input devices
  • Sample mode
    • Program reads the current state of input device (frequently)
  • Event mode
    • Each click or motion generates an event that goes on a queue
    • Program can process events from queue
  • HTML?
event loop programming
Event-loop programming
  • Events: button press, slider value change, menu selection, mouse move, keypress
  • Event loop:
    • Poll (or wait) for events
    • Process events, update state
    • Update display
    • (ideally: wait for rest of frame time to elapse)
state driven
State-driven
  • Typically, the event loop is driven by a big state table
    • e.g. depressing the paintbrush tool releases other tools, puts me in "paint mode"
  • Good libraries will handle some of the bookkeeping for you
  • You still typically have to handle some state
event loop in html js
Event loop in HTML/JS
  • HTML/JS provides event queue, support for many basic events (mousedown, mouseup mouseover, mousemove, keypress, key release, value change, button click, etc.)
  • You are on your own for higher-level events, e.g. clicking on a toolbar tool
  • It's also possible to set a function to run every 15 ms, sample input devices
events for painting
Events for painting?
  • mousedown:
    • go into paint mode
    • store mouse position
    • draw initial dot
  • mouseup:
    • exit paint mode
  • mousemove:
    • if in paint mode
      • draw a line from old mouse position to current
      • set old mouse position to current position
event handling with jquery
Event handling with jQuery
  • Binding events to functions

$(cpaint.canvas).bind('mousedown', cpaint.drawStart)

  • Processing events

cpaint.drawStart = function(ev) {

var x, y;

x = ev.pageX - $(cpaint.canvas).offset().left;

y = ev.pageY - $(cpaint.canvas).offset().top;

ev.preventDefault();

cpaint.paintmode = true;

cpaint.oldX = x;

cpaint.oldY = y;

looking neat and spiffy
Looking neat and spiffy
  • How to avoid crinkles in your paint strokes?
looking neat and spiffy1
Looking neat and spiffy
  • How to avoid crinkles in your paint strokes?
    • Draw connected paths
    • Or just use line caps
menus
Menus
  • There are many jQuery menu plug-ins…

<ul id="mainmenu">

<li>File

<ul>

<li id="menuNew">New</li>

<li id="menuOpen">Open</li>

<li id="menuSave">Save</li>

-------------------------------------

$('#menuNew').bind('click', cpaint.clear);

$('#menuOpen').bind('click',cpaint.open);

$('#menuSave').bind('click',cpaint.save);

toolbar
Toolbar
  • How to make a toolbar?
  • How should buttons behave?
  • State diagram?
buttons
Buttons
  • Widgets may have several states
  • State should be evident in visual feedback
  • E.g. how exactly does a button work? States?
  • State transition diagram
    • Most buttons: six states, with six different appearances
      • neutral
      • neutral-highlighted
      • neutral-depressed
      • selected
      • selected-highlighted
      • selected-depressed
    • Events: mousedown, mouseup, enter, exit
    • Transitions: what happens in each state under each event?
button state diagram buttons selectable not unselectable
Button state diagram (buttons selectable, not unselectable)

N

S

NH

SH

N: neutral

H: highlighted (usually mouse over)

S: selected

D: mouse down

NHD

SHD

Press

Move

other button considerations
Other button considerations
  • Could also consider
    • Tooltips
    • Whether button merely clicks and releases or can be selected
    • Whether button can be unselected

(e.g. B/I/U vs. Left, Center, Right)

  • Want consistent appearance, behavior over whole program – or whole computer
  • Really need a library implementation and a strict set of UI guidelines…
4 state toolbar buttons css
4-State toolbar buttons: CSS

.toolbarCell {

background-color:#ddd; width:20pt; height:20pt;

border: solid #eee 2px;

-webkit-box-shadow: 2px 2px 2px #666; }

#markerButton { background: url(img/paintbrush.png)

no-repeat center center; }

.selected { -webkit-box-shadow: inset 2px 2px 2px #666; }

.toolbarCell:hover { border:solid #555 2px; }

4 state toolbar buttons js
4-State toolbar buttons: JS

$('#markerButton').bind('click', {tool:"marker"}, cpaint.selectTool);

-------------------

cpaint.selectTool = function(ev) {

cpaint.tool = ev.data.tool; // get tool name

$('.toolbarCell').each(function(index) { // unselect

$(this).removeClass('selected'); // others

});

var tool = '#' + cpaint.tool + 'Button'; // get ID

$(tool).addClass('selected'); // select

}

color picker
Color picker
  • Google "jQuery color picker"…
how draw a line
How draw a line?
  • What kind of feedback is normal?
    • Rubber Banding
  • Events and actions?
save restore
Save & restore
  • Create your own off-screen canvas
  • Copy it back on each mouse movement
  • Events and actions?
save restore event handling
Save & Restore event handling
  • Mousedown
    • enter line mode
    • remember mouse position as startx, starty
    • save screen
    • draw initial dot
  • Mousemove
    • paste saved screen
    • draw line from startx, starty to current mouse pos
  • Mouseup
    • exit line mode
analysis
Analysis
  • Drawbacks?
    • slow – eats memory bandwidth for breakfast
      • copy smallest possible rectangle? Only points from line?
    • possible flickering
      • use double buffering?
double buffering
Double buffering
  • Have two frame buffers, "front" and "back"
  • Draw into back buffer
  • At vertical retrace time, swap buffers
  • This is a fundamental graphics technique…
  • …not built into canvas…
  • …though, some drawing aggregation seems to happen automatically, behind the scenes;
  • …not usually necessary in canvas, but browser dependent
fake double buffering in canvas
Fake Double Buffering in Canvas
  • Create off-screen canvas

canvasBuffer = document.createElement('canvas');

canvasBuffer.width = canvas.width;

canvasBuffer.height= canvas.height;

canvasBufferContext= canvasBuffer.getContext('2d');

  • Draw into off-screen canvas

canvasBufferContext.[drawSomeStuff…]

  • Copy onto display canvas

context.drawImage(canvasBuffer, 0, 0);

how to erase
How to erase?
  • Draw background color…
save load
Save, Load?
  • Save
    • Copy pixels to an image so users can right-click, save-as
  • Load
    • What are the security risks?
    • Can only load files from the same server
    • Can use a file chooser if it's a local app
    • Security policies are not entirely in place
resizing
Resizing
  • How would you allow the user to shrink, expand image?
  • What would happen to image resolution?
store drawing commands
Store drawing commands
  • Realistically, to redraw effectively, you have to save all drawing commands

pen color red

fill color blue

line width 5

circle 5 10 12

textfont Times 12

text 10 10 "hello world"

  • Replay commands to redraw scene
  • Could store commands in a file (e.g. Mac PICT file)
  • For some kinds of drawings, files are smaller and more accurate than bitmaps
other toolkits
Other toolkits
  • HTML offers basic UI capabilities in a cross-platform context
  • Writing your own UI extensions is tedious
  • jQuery plugins extend capabilities
  • Ideally, all UI elements ought to be built in
  • In the real world, they come in platform-specific 'toolkits' or 'windowing libraries'
  • E.g. MFC, QT, OpenLook, Cocoa …
image processing
Image processing
  • Image processing examples:
    • blur, sharpen
    • detect edges
    • enhance contrast
    • noise reduction
    • posterize
    • fisheye
    • redeye reduction
    • find faces
how to fade an image
How to fade an image?
  • Could average pixel colors with white
  • Or just decrease alpha…
how to blur an image1
How to blur an image?
  • Blurring is an averaging process
  • Convolution: apply a convolution kernel, e.g.
  • Center on pixel of interest
  • Multiply each value by color val underneath
  • Add results
  • Gaussian smoothing
how to sharpen an image
How to sharpen an image?
  • It's a differentiation process
  • What's Unsharp Masking?
how to sharpen an image1
How to sharpen an image?
  • It's a differentiation process
  • What's Unsharp Masking?
  • Subtract blurred version from original
  • Add back to original
sharpening
Sharpening
  • Subtract neighbors
  • Like subtracting a blurred version of the image
  • Unsharp Masking
  • E.g. convolve with a kernel like one of these:
sobel edge operators
Sobel Edge Operators
  • Look for horizontal and vertical variation
  • Could do this at different sales or resolutions
  • Note: results maybe positive or negative numbers; must normalize
image compression
Image Compression
  • What if you created say six different lower-resolution images and only stored the difference at each resolution?
  • Note: most of the data is in the highest-frequency component
  • An early image compression technique
the alg that changed imagery
The alg that changed imagery…
  • Discrete cosinetransform (DCT)
  • (Wikipedia)
jpeg image compression
JPEG image compression
  • DCT to convert to frequency domain
  • Perceptual modeling
  • Coefficient quantization
  • Entropy coding
research in image processing and computer vision
Research in image processing and computer vision
  • How would you clear up a blurry photograph?
  • How would you recognize a face in a photograph?
face recognition
Face recognition
  • One approach: statistically derive a set of “standardized face ingredients” from many examples, resulting in “eigenfaces”
  • Represent each face as linear combinationof eigenfaces
summary
Summary
  • Event loop programming
  • Interaction and event handling in HTML
  • State diagrams
  • Painting
  • Rubber banding
  • Double buffering
  • Basic image processing and convolutions
  • "Photoshop Nano"