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Bell Ringer!

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  1. Bell Ringer! • How did slaves resist slavery? • How did they communicate with one another to help resist? • List as many as you can think of! • Trying to escape to the North (to Canada) • Breaking tools • Destroying crops • Participating in slave revolts • Stealing • Slowing the pace of work

  2. Spirituals as coded messages “Swing low, sweet chariot, Coming for to carry me home,. . .A band of angels coming after me,Coming for to carry me home.” “Wade in the Water”

  3. AbolitionMovement to ABOLISH (end) slavery

  4. 1st protest:1688 - Germantown Quaker petition against slavery

  5. The mission continues… • 1775 – Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society is founded (PAS) • Ben Franklin becomes President in 1787

  6. 1793 – Fugitive Slave Act outlaws any effort to obstruct the capture of a runaway slave (harsher version passes in 1850) • 1808 – Importation of slaves from Africa is outlawed

  7. 1831 – Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Slave preacher who led a two-day uprising against whites in Virginia • Risks of rebellion? Is it worth the risk?? • 60 whites and more than 100 blacks killed • Enraged Southerners impose harsher restrictions on their slaves

  8. 1712 New York Slave Revolt(New York City, Suppressed)1733 St. John Slave Revolt(Saint John, Suppressed)1739 Stono Rebellion(South Carolina, Suppressed)1741 New York Conspiracy(New York City, Suppressed)1760 Tacky's War(Jamaica, Suppressed)1791–1804 Haitian Revolution(Saint-Domingue, Victorious)1800 Gabriel Prosser(Virginia, Suppressed)1805 Chatham Manor(Virginia, Suppressed)1811 German Coast Uprising(Territory of Orleans, Suppressed)1815 George Boxley(Virginia, Suppressed)1822 Denmark Vesey(South Carolina, Suppressed) • 1831 Nat Turner's rebellion(Virginia, Suppressed)1831–1832 Baptist War(Jamaica, Suppressed)1839 Amistad, ship rebellion(Off the Cuban coast, Victorious)1841 Creole, ship rebellion(Off the Southern U.S. coast, Victorious)1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation(Southern U.S., Suppressed)1859 John Brown's Raid(Virginia, Suppressed)

  9. 1833 – American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) founded by Garrison, and the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (PFASS) founded by Mott

  10. 1833 - American Colonization Society • Believed free blacks should emigrate (move permanently) to Africa

  11. 1857 - Supreme Court rules that Congress can never outlaw slavery in any territory (Dred Scott decision) • 1865 – 13th amendment to the US Constitution outlaws slavery

  12. Assignment • Take out your book, read pages 439-442 • Answer the questions on the reverse

  13. Bell Ringer! • What do you think are the most important qualities of a reformer? (Someone who wants to bring changes to the country to make it better) • Ex: Dedication • …. • …. • (list more!)

  14. William Lloyd Garrison • "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD."

  15. William Lloyd Garrison • Born in Massachusetts, poor upbringing, limited formal education • 1831 – “The Liberator” – anti-slavery newspaper (ran for 35 years, 1,820 issues) • Argued for immediate emancipation - unpopular view at time – argued for assimilation of blacks into white society (become like dominant culture) • Seen as “radical” but believed in non-violent passive resistance • Beganfirst anti-slavery organization American Anti-Slavery Society • Allowed women to join • Saw Constitution as pro-slavery document – Douglass agreed at first, then broke with Garrison – the two never reconciled

  16. Angelina and Sara Grimké • grew up onwealthy slave plantation in S. Carolina but rejected lifestyle – moved north to join anti-slavery organizations • Quakers • Lectured against slavery and racial discrimination • Among the first abolitionists to recognize the importance of women's rights

  17. Lucretia Mott • Quaker teacher, minister • Formed Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society • Free produce movement - refused to use products produced by slaves • Attended world’s anti-slavery convention 1840 “Lioness” • Organized (w/Stanton)1st Women’s Rights convention – Seneca Falls Convention (1848) • Leading figure of Women’s Movement - 1st wave feminism (suffrage)

  18. Frederick Douglass Sojourner (Isabella) Truth

  19. Sojourner (Isabella) Truth • Born into slavery in New York • Witnessed many horrors of slavery (similar to Harriet Jacobs experience) • Escaped to the North – worked with Quakers • To “sojourn” – to stay temporarily and declare the truth to the people • Her narrative published by Garrison • “Ain’t I a Woman” most famous speech

  20. Lucretia Mott (seated, second from right), the only female Quaker preacher in 1840s America, forced groups like this Philadelphia abolitionist society to admit women when most still refused.   The Pennsylvania Abolition Society & Mission for Black Education

  21. Underground Railroad • Vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada • Not run by any single organization or person, rather, it consisted of many individuals – black and white • Moved hundreds of slaves northward each year -- according to one estimate, the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850.

  22. Railroad Terminology • “Stations” = the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat • “Stockholders” = those who contributed money or goods • “Conductor” = person responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next • Harriet Tubman “MOSES” – most famous conductor on underground railroad

  23. “Moses” with Runaway Slaves Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves escape

  24. Other Reform Movements • Temperance (anti-alcohol) • Education • Women’s Rights • Prison Reform • Mental Health * In your team research your reform movement, create a poster that lists the concerns with your topic

  25. Video! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmsNGrkbHm4

  26. Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Abolitionist • Co-organizer of Seneca Falls Convention • Author of “Declaration of Sentiments” – the manifesto produced by women in Seneca Falls – offers blueprint for feminist organizing for decades to come • Most “radical” demand – right to vote

  27. Susan B. Anthony • Skilled organizer temperance and anti-slavery movements • Built women’s movement into national organization • Supported women’s property and wage rights

  28. Will women ever get the vote? • “it will come, but I shall not see it...It is inevitable. We can no more deny forever the right of self-government to one-half our people than we could keep the Negro forever in bondage. It will not be wrought by the same disrupting forces that freed the slave, but come it will, and I believe within a generation.” • "Failure is impossible"