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References and citations explained. Learning outcomes. You will know why correct referencing is essential You will know what citations are and when and how to cite in the text You will be able to reference some key sources of information including books, journal articles and websites

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Learning outcomes l.jpg
Learning outcomes

  • You will know why correct referencing is essential

  • You will know what citations are and when and how to cite in the text

  • You will be able to reference some key sources of information including books, journal articles and websites

  • You will have a good understanding of how to set out bibliographies

  • You will know how to use the guides to answer your own referencing questions


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Why is correct referencing important?

It is a requirement of your department/school

Allows others to easily find your sources

–give as much information as you can

Puts your current work into context

Helps you re-trace your reading in the future

Provides supporting evidence for facts, opinions, data, approaches taken

Poor information sources and poor referencing loses marks

Gives your work academic credibility

Shows the breadth of your reading

Avoid plagiarism!


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What are references and citations?

Citation

Appears in the text of your essay, wherever you use a quote or incorporate an idea you have picked up from another source

Reference

Appears at the end of your essay or chapter, or sometimes at the bottom of each page, and gives full details of the source of your information

Reference list

A list at the end of a chapter or essay giving full details of sources cited within the essay

Bibliography

A list at the end of your essay which gives the full details of all sources which you have read even if they are not referred to within the text


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In-text citations

Harvard:

In the Harvard style, you usually include the author's surname and the date of publication in brackets (Jones 2005). For each citation there should be a full reference at the end of your work, giving the full details of the source.

JONES, A. 2005. References and citations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Numeric:

In the Numeric style, the citation is a number that refers the reader to a corresponding reference in your reference list. The first source cited in your work is allocated number 1; the second is allocated number 2, and so on.

1. JONES, A. References and citations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

2. ADAMS, B. Referencing in academic work. London: Sage publications, 2008.


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In-text citations activity

  • Read the extract in your handout

  • You are then asked five multiple choice questions about how this extract should be cited

  • Choose whether you think answer a or b is correct.

  • Ask me for an answer sheet when you’re done

  • Use the online guidance to help you:

    http://library.leeds.ac.uk/skills-referencing


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In-text citations: More tips

Tip 1: To cite a source that you have read in another source:

Harvard: (Matthews 1998, cited in Brown 2001 p.17).

Numeric: Matthews (5 p.17) cites Brown, who emphasises...


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In-text citations: More tips

Tip 2: If you are citing items from the same author in the same year:

Harvard: They should be distinguished by adding a lower-case letter after the year .

Numeric: This isn’t a problem as the source would just be allocated another number

  • E.g.: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones 1998a). In a work published later that year Jones (1998b) proposed that...


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In-text citations: More tips

Tip 3: If there is no author:

Harvard: (Anon 2011)

Numeric: Use Anon in your reference list

Tip 4: If there is no date:

Harvard: In-text citation: (Jones no date) Bibliography: [no date]

Numeric: In your reference list write [no date] where the year would normally appear



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Examples of Harvard and Numeric

For comparison purposes, here is an example of a book referenced using the 2 methods:HarvardJONES, S. and F. BROWN. 1998. Citing and referencing published material. 3rd ed. London: British Institution.NumericJONES, S. and F. BROWN. Citing and referencing published material. 3rd ed. London: British Institution, 1998.


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Different types of sources

When you are reading for an assignment you may use a whole range of sources:

  • A book

  • A chapter in an edited book

  • A journal article

  • An electronic journal article

  • A website

  • An email

  • A map

    Now we will practise writing references for several of these sources


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Practical referencing activity

  • Reference:

    • Book

    • Chapter in an edited book

    • Journal article

    • E-journal article

    • Website


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Answers: the book reference

Harvard

  • ABBAS, A.K. and A.H. LICHTMAN. 2001. Basic immunology: functions and disorders of the immune system. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.

    Numeric

  • ABBAS, A.K. and A.H. LICHTMAN. Basic immunology: functions and disorders of the immune system. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 2001.


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Answers: the chapter reference

Harvard

  • CHASE, K. 1997. Jane Eyre’s interior design. In: H. GLEN, ed. Jane Eyre. Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp.52-67.

    Numeric

  • CHASE, K. Jane Eyre’s interior design. In: H. GLEN, ed. Jane Eyre. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997, pp.52-67.


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Answers: the journal article reference

Harvard

  • TYAGI, R.K. 2004. Technological advances, transaction costs, and consumer welfare. Marketing Science.23(3), pp.335-344.

    Numeric

  • TYAGI, R.K. Technological advances, transaction costs, and consumer welfare. Marketing Science, 2004, 23(3), pp.335-344.


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Answers: the e-journal article reference

Harvard

  • VAHEY, D.C. et al. 2004. Measuring and improving health care quality: nursing's contribution to the state of science. Nursing outlook [online]. 52(1), [Accessed 26 October 2004], pp.6-10. Available from: http://0-www.sciencedirect.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk

    Numeric

  • VAHEY, D.C. et al. Measuring and improving health care quality: nursing's contribution to the state of science. Nursing outlook [online], 2004, 52(1), pp.6-10. [Accessed 26 October 2004]. Available from: http://0-www.sciencedirect.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk


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Setting out bibliographies: Harvard

When listing your references you can either include:

  • a reference list - an alphabetical list of citations that have appeared in the body of your work; if using this, you may also include

  • a full bibliography - listing all the sources of information you have consulted in your research, and this list should also be arranged alphabetically.

  • Alternatively you can just provide a full bibliography - check with you School regarding their requirements.


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Bibliography: Harvard

BELZ, F., and B. SCHMIDT-RIEDIGER. 2010. Marketing strategies in the age of sustainable development: Evidence from the food industry. Business Strategy and the Environment 19(7)

BRENKERT, G. 2008. Marketing ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing

CAPON, N. 2007. The marketing mavens. New York: Crown Business


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Setting out bibliographies: Numeric

  • When listing your references you should include:

  • A reference list - a list of citations, in the order that they have appeared in your work. Repeated citations to the same item have the same number within the text as the first citation.

  • A full bibliography - listing all the sources of information that you have consulted in your research including background reading. The references in your bibliography that you have not cited in your work will not have a number, therefore this list should be arranged alphabetically by author's surname.

  • Check with you School regarding their requirements.



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To sum up:

  • Use the method your department wants

  • Remember a citation is a reference within the text, a reference comes at the end of your text

  • Avoid losing marks by referencing correctly and consistently!

  • Avoid plagiarism


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Further help:

  • Use the referencing guidance on the Library referencing webpages:

    http://library.leeds.ac.uk/skills-referencing