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BIOT 412: Medical Biotechnology • Topic:Stroke- Cerebrovascular Disease Presented by: Adeela Hussain 12-10403 Presented to: Dr. Leslye Johnson
Stroke- Brain attack or Cerebral infarction or Cerebral hemorrhage Due to blood clot or ruptured artery if blood fails to reach every cell then it lead to failure of oxygen supply and lasting as neurological damage.
Categories of Stroke(Two) (1) Ischemic Stroke • Blood clot formation • 75-80% Further two divisions • Embolic Stroke---------------embolus • Thrombotic Stroke ----------thrombosis • Stenosis---contraction of an artery due to plaque formation
Transient ischemic attack • TIA is like a stroke, producing similar symptoms, but usually lasting only a few minutes and causing no permanent damage. • Mini stroke • A transient ischemic attack can serve as both a warning and an opportunity.
Hemorrhage Stroke • Due to rupturing of blood vessel • Blood flows out; develops pressure on brain and reduces the blood flow • About 20% Further two divisions: • Intracerebral Hemorrhage:Bursting of defective blood vessel within the brain itself. • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Cracking of blood vessel and blood flows between brain and skull and affecting the cerebrospinal fluid also.
Symptoms • Sudden severe headache • Double vision • Numbness, weakness or paralysis • Speech problems • Dizziness, trouble walking and loss of balance and coordination • Clumsiness • Confusion or loss of memory • Personality, mood or emotional changes (Silent Strokes)
Risk Factors • High Blood Pressure • Diabetes • Heart Disease • High Cholesterol • Atrial Fibrillation • Family History of Stroke and Increasing Age • Race (Black people get more effected) • Smoking • Use of Alcohol • Birth Control Use or other Hormone Therapy • High level of Homocysteine • Cocaine Use
Diagnosis • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan • Arteriography • Carotid duplex (ultrasound) • Echocardiography • CT and MRI with angiography • Physical Assessment Tests as: Cholesterol level Blood sugar level Amino acid level Blood clotting tests Complete blood count (CBC)
Treatment • Thrombolytic Therapy-clot-busting drug--------Alteplase (Tissue Plasminogen Activator) • Blood Thinners------- Aspirin, Clopidogrel (Plavix), Heparin • Radiology treatment • Surgery
Preventation • Recent Research: • Neuroprotective Agents • Stem Cells Therapy
Impact of Stroke WHO----- 5.5 million in 2002 casualties 60% females-----------------40% males Stroke in Pakistan