A New Kind of Conflict The “Great War” (Ch. 27, Section 3) Take out yesterday’s Graphic Organizer homework on this topic!
After the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (June 1914):Serbia VS. Austria-Hungary Russia Germany France** At first, Italy & Britain remained uncommitted!
The Schlieffen Plan Britain had to decide whether or not to support its Triple Entente ally France. Germany made the decision for them! The Schlieffen Plan was designed to avoid a two-front war against France in the west and Russia in the east. Under this plan, Germany first had to defeat France quickly and then it would fight Russia.
Schlieffen Plan: required German armies to march through Belgium to get to France. On August 3, Germany INVADED a neutral Belgium (Germany = 1st country to invade another in WWI). Britain and other Europeans had signed a treaty guaranteeing Belgian neutrality, so Britain declared war on Germany. Italy chose to remain neutral for the time being.
The Western Front Germans soon violated the Schlieffen Plan because Russia mobilized more quickly than Germany had expected. As Russia won a few small victories in the east, Germany had to shift some troops there which weakened their forces in the west. The British joined French troops and pushed back the German offensive which destroyed Germany’s hopes for a quick victory on the Western Front.
Trench Fortification. A long, narrow excavation in the ground to serve as a shelter from enemy fire or attack. Roasted under the broiling sun & froze through the long winters. Living there soldiers shared their food with rats (which can carry disease) and shared their beds with lice.
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
The only remedy for trench foot was for the soldiers to dry their feet and change their socks several times a day. By the end of 1915, British soldiers in the trenches had to have three pairs of socks with them and were under orders to change their socks at least twice a day.
In the trenches, the weapon carried by all British soldiers was the bolt-action rifle (above). It was possible for the soldier to fire 15 rounds per minute and could kill someone up to 1,400 meters away.
Unlike today, machine guns were NOT the main weapons of soldiers. They needed 4-6 men to man them in 1914 and had to be positioned on a flat surface. They could fire up to 400 rounds per minute and had the fire power of 100 guns!
Poison Gas Machine Gun
This war was the first to use chlorine and mustard gas. • The German army was first to use chlorine in 1915; French soldiers had not come across this before and assumed that it was a smoke screen. It has a distinctive smell – a mixture of pepper and pineapple – and they only realized they were being gassed when the started to have chest pains and a burning sensation in their throats, suffocating to death! • The problem with using chlorine is, weather conditions must be right before it is used (shifting winds might blow the gas back on the side that launched it)! • Allied forces discovered that urine-soaked cotton pads neutralized the chlorine. However, soldiers found is difficult to fight like this!!!
Mustard gas was the most deadly biological weapon that was used in the trenches! It was odorless and took 12 hours to take effect! It was also very powerful, only small amounts needed to be added to shells to be effective and it remained active for several weeks when it landed in the soil. • Mustard gas made the skin blister, the eyes sore and the victim would start to vomit. It would cause internal and external bleeding, and would target the lungs. It could take up to 5 weeks to die!
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Rene PaukFonck, Fr. Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.
War is HELL!!! “One out of every four men who went out to the World War did not come back again..and of those who came back, many are maimed and blind and some are mad.” – pg. 685
Winning the War (Ch. 27, Section 4: pgs. 690-693)
Wartime Propaganda - spreading of ideas to promote a cause OR to damage an opposing cause. Both the Allies & the Central Powers used propaganda!
Financing the War Hun = German
German Poster “Think of Your Children!”
The U.S. went to war in 1917 because… 1. Unrestricted submarine warfare that Germans engaged in. Attack on the Lusitania. 2. Cultural sympathy for England and France (common language, democracy). 3. Zimmerman Telegram – coded message from Germany to Mexico asking for help in the war in exchange for lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.
The YanksAre Coming! April 1917 US joins WWI Spring 1918 US troops first arrive on Western Front!!!
The End of the War ARMISTICE: an agreement to end fighting. But does an agreement to stop fighting mean that anyone admits defeat?? (Consider: Cease-fire vs. surrender!) 11:00 am on November 11, 1918 (11-11-18) We celebrate Veterans Day now on Nov. 11th!
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!