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AAE 451 - Aircraft Senior Design

AAE 451 - Aircraft Senior Design

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AAE 451 - Aircraft Senior Design

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  1. AAE 451 - Aircraft Senior Design TEAM III Sumitero (Calvin) Darsono Charles Hagenbush Keith Higdon Seung-il Kim Matt Lewis Matt Richter Jeff Tippmann Alex Zaubi

  2. Presentations Outline 1. Mission Statement 2. Business Case and Target Markets 3. Concept of Operations 4. Major Design Requirements 5. Aircraft Concept Selections 6. Components – Camera, Avionics, Fuel Cell 7. Power Plant 8. Aircraft Sizing: Constraint Diagram 9. Conclusion

  3. Mission Statement To provide a continuous aerial coverage using an UAS that is small, light, portable and allows rapid deployment

  4. UAS Providing Continuous Coverage for Small Operations • Business Case • Small portable UAS • Rapid deployment and coverage • Multiple aircraft in system • Little support equipment • Product is entire system • # of planes • Laptops • Communication equipment • Visual or IR Sensors • Storage equipment Evolution XTS – L3 BAI Aerosystems • Market • Military • Surveillance around temporary base • Forward reconnaissance • Law enforcement and emergency services • Surveillance in assessing hazardous situations before committing personnel

  5. Description of Customer - Military • Military Highlights • Deployed with squadron • Launched from location by hand • Monitor area of interests around operations, 5-10 mile range • Recognize vehicles and enemy combatants • Do not need high resolution of plate numbers, faces • 2-4 planes • Design to be transported by backpack, though Humvee will probably be sufficient Elbit Skylark IV (Israel) Aerovironment Raven

  6. Law Enforcement Highlights Deployed with SWAT team Launched from location by hand Monitor area of interests around operations, 5-10 mile range Recognize vehicles, people Do not need high resolution of plate numbers, faces Chemical Spill/ Radiation Monitor Search for suspect drug manufacturing Monitor hazardous chemical spill/ radiations Crowd control Monitor peaceful protest 1-2 to planes Designed to be transported in vehicle Description of Customer – Law Enforcement Octran SkySeer Marauder Raider

  7. Current Market Military • As of 2005, over 800 small UA Systems planned • Over 2500 aircraft • Market is Growing • Armed Forces to spend $20M a year for the next 3 years on small UA Systems • Canada and Great Britain looking to obtain similar systems Law Enforcement • Ideally, each police station could have one UAV • “It (UAV) provides several things that we can't get other ways,” quoted Commander Heal of Los Angeles Sheriff Department

  8. Major Design Requirement • Small and light weight aircraft - limited by hand launch requirement, payload weight • Endurance – limited by the battery, powerplants • Range – limited by battery and communication relay, powerplant • Payload Weight – limited camera, lens, avionics • Power - Fuel cell • Energy Density depends on the weight of the aircraft. • Fuel cell will be used due to lower weight and higher energy density available Aerovironment - Raven

  9. Aircraft Concept Selection 5 1 2 3 8

  10. Aircraft Concept Selection Hybrid 1 • V-Tail, 2-props Note: Aircraft is not drawn to scale

  11. Aircraft Concept Selection Hybrid 2 • V-Tail, forward prop Note: Aircraft is not drawn to scale

  12. Payload – Camera Core Camera • Photon OEM Core IR Camera • 320x240 Long Wavelength • Manufactured by FLIR System • Frame Rate = 30 Hz (320X240) • Autonomous and manual camera operations • Minimum Power Consumption ~1.5W • Weight (~0.27lbs) • Camera Core = 0.21 lbs • Rear Cover = 0.03lbs • Universal Lens Holder = 0.03lbs • Dimensions • 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.8in Camera Core of Photon OEM Photon OEM with Lens

  13. Payload – Camera Lens Lens • Two lens are considered • Focal Length 35.0mm • 20o HFoV f/1.4 • Weight = 0.194 lbs (including lens mount) • Total Camera Weight = 0.47lbs • Optimum for operations up to 1000 ft • Focal Length 50.0mm • 14o HFoV f/2.0 • Weight = 0.28 lbs (including lens mount) • Total Camera Weight = 0.56 lbs • For operations greater than 1000 ft Projected Results Obtained from the Camera OEM Photon with 35.0mm Lens OEM Photon with 50.0mm Lens

  14. Avionics Advanced Miniature UAV Autopilots by Micro Pilots • MP2128LRC Long Range Communications • Weight of the chip: 0.06 lbs • Low Power Requirement = 1 Watt • Rugged Aluminum Enclosures • Total Weight = 0.727 lbs • Range of up to 30 miles • GPS waypoint navigations with altitude and airspeed hold • 3 different modes • autopilot, manually pilot, emergencydirect servo control • Hand launch take off mode available MP2128 Autopilot Chips MP2128LRC Autopilot with Aluminum Enclosures

  15. Power– Fuel Cells Procore Fuel Cell • Manufactured by Protonex • High Net Power Output = 50 to 200 Watts • Output Voltage = 20 to 30 Voltages • Output Current = 1 to 10 Amperes • High Energy = 770 W-h • Weight = 4.4 lbs • Emission • Hydrogen and Water Protonex Procore Fuel Cells Protonex Procore Inside a Model UAV

  16. Component Weight Summary

  17. Powerplant - Motors AXI4120/18 Goldline • Brushless motor with neodymium magnets • Manufactured by Model Motors s.r.o , Czech Republic • RPM/V = 515 RPM/V • Maximum Efficiency = 86% • Dimensions = 2in (d) x 2.2 in • Suggested Max Aircraft Weight = 11lbs AXI4120/18 Goldline

  18. Propeller Selection - Takeoff (9000 RPM)

  19. Propeller Selection - Cruise (7000 RPM)

  20. Based off comparison of thrust produced and power required at given speeds. Diameter = 10 inches Pitch = 7 inches Takeoff Velocity: 17 kts Efficiency: 50% Thrust: 2.3 lbs Power: 195 W Cruise Velocity: 30 kts Efficiency: 77% Thrust: .9 lbs Power: 82 W Propeller Selection Two blades and four blades propellers

  21. For the UAV to satisfy the military and law enforcement CONOPS, 5 Constraints will be needed: Hand launch take off requirement at 1.1 Vstall (17.22 kts) Climb 200 ft/min at 18.8 kts Climb to 1000 ft at approximately 5 minutes Loiter at 30 kts for 4 hours Perform a 2-g turn at 30 kts Turn radius of approximately 12.13 m Stall Speed at 15.65 kts (18 mph) Basic Assumptions Constraint Diagram

  22. Constraint Diagrams • The Crucial Limiting Factors: • 2 g turns – important for maneuverability • Stall Speed • Important for landing requirements • Deep stall landing is proposed • Approximate design point • Wing loading • 1 to 1.1 lb/ft2 • Approximately 10ft2 to 11ft2 of wing area for 10 lbs of aircraft • Power requirement • 15 to 17 watt/lbs • Approximately 150 to 170 Watts for 10 lbs of aircraft

  23. Constraint Diagram

  24. Next Steps • More on sizing code • Carpet Plots • Aerodynamics • Airfoil Selections • Aircraft Drag Polar • Aircraft Performance • Structures • Basic structure layout and components placement • Stability of Control • Estimations of aircraft c.g • Estimations of aircraft static margin

  25. Questions and Comments ANY QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS?

  26. Appendix I: CONOPS - Military Reconnaissance, Security, and Patrol Missions

  27. Appendix II: QFD • Two separate scoring for each customer • Military Customer Important Attributes • TOGW • Operative Cost • Payload Weight • Number of Aircraft • Law Enforcement Customer Importance Attributes • TOGW • Number of Aircraft • Acquisition Cost • Operative Cost • Payload Weight