localisation n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Localisation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Localisation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 67

Localisation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 265 Views
  • Uploaded on

Consortium for Training Translation Teachers (CTTT) in cooperation with the Intercultural Studies Group and the Department of Translation and Interpreting Studies at Bogazici University Technology for Translation Teachers Istanbul , Turkey, 03 - 07 July 2006. Localisation. Reinhard Sch äler.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Localisation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Consortium for Training Translation Teachers (CTTT) in cooperation with the Intercultural Studies Group and the Department of Translation and Interpreting Studies at Bogazici University Technology for Translation Teachers Istanbul, Turkey, 03 - 07 July 2006 Localisation Reinhard Schäler www.gilc.info www.localisation.ie www.tilponline.ie (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    2. Is this code valid? char c; //Get user input If ((c>= ‘A’ && c<= ‘Z’) || (c>= ‘a’ && c<= ‘z’)) { //accept the input } else { //handle error case } This is an English-specific way of checking for valid input. This code would not work correctly in many non-English languages, including Danish. In addition to 26 letters of English alphabet, Danish has three additional letters that appear after the letter z (æ ø, å). (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    3. Two internationalised and localised applicatoins Spreadsheet Organiser (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    4. Objectives • Clarify common localisation concepts and reflect on commonly held believes about localisation • Analyse and localise a small software application • Discuss the implications of a changing localisation world for teaching and training (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    5. Localisation Workshop SESSION I – Localisation SESSION II - Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    6. I18N - L10N – G11N • Internationalisation • … the process of designing (or modifying) software so as to isolate the linguistically and culturally dependent parts of an application • … the development of a system that allows linguistic and cultural adaptation supporting users working in different languages and cultures. • Localisation • … the linguistic and cultural adaptation of a product to the requirements of a foreign market. • Globalisation • … a business strategy (not so much an activity) addressing the issues associated with taking a product to the global market. • Includes world-wide marketing, sales and support. (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    7. Linguistic adaptation • Translation of user interface and user assistance • Short turn-around time, often repetitive, always variety of digital formats • Translation of graphical user interface (GUI) • Dialogues, menus, strings • Includes appropriate formats for • Number, time, currency and measurements. These should work if the product has been properly internationalised, but localisers have to make sure that they work and are used as defaults • Rendering, sorting, spelling, hyphenation. Users should be able to use their own script and process information in other languages without the loss or corruption of data. Again this should work ‘out of the box’ if properly internationalised. (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    8. Cultural adaptation • Folklore and stories • El Dorado, Red Riding Hood, The Holy Grail • Songs and references • Songs that teach counting or the alphabet • References (yellow school bus or the Acropolis), maps, images • Religion • Images of Holy Mary and Jesus; references to gender in bible translations; feast days (‘Sun’-Day; Christmas) • History • The Diaries of Columbus, a distinctly European view of the New World • The second world war • Sales and marketing • Drinks (Coca-Cola, Guinness: Irish/Nigerian), food (Chinese restaurants; McDonalds), cars (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    9. Hofstedde (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    10. Strategy Product Function or need satisfied Conditions of product use Ability to buy product Recommended communications strategy Rank order from least to most expensive Product examples 1 Same Same Yes Extension 1 Soft drinks 2 Different Same Yes Extension 2 Bicycles, motor scooters 3 Same Different Yes Adaptation 3 Gasoline, detergents 4 Different Different Yes Adaptation 4 Clothing, greeting cards 5 Same - No Develop new communication 5 Hand-powered washing machines Localisation strategies Extension – same approach as in home market Adaptation – requires some changes to fit the new market requirements Invention – an entirely new approach is required (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    11. Examples of early L10N? Egyptian European South American (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    12. Examples of modern L10N? German Dutch French (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    13. Is McDonald’s localised? • USA • Beef burgers and freedom fries • Spain • Salads and outside chairs/tables • Greece • Lamb burgers and feta cheese • India • No beef; no animal fat (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    14. Why many definitions have to be refined • Localisation is not the adaptation of any service or product • Clearly differentiate localisation from • Mainstream translation • Global marketing • Graphic design, printing • Film / radio production • Take account of • Move from localisation of software applications to more general digital content as traditional publishing industries (film, printing, recording) converge in the digital world. • Applications • Websites • Games • Courseware • eGovernmet, eHealth (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    15. It is localisation • If • the material to be adapted is digital • because • this determines • the process (analysis, pre-processing, translation automation, testing, engineering) • the tools and technologies • the release and distribution • this determines the challenges specific to localisation, including • file formats (huge variety, ever growing number) • encoding, fonts, rendering (dependent on standards; sometimes difficult to implement; not always available) • user interface space restrictions • context (or lack thereof) and visual translation environment (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    16. Definition – refined … … the linguistic and cultural adaptation of digital content to the requirements of a foreign market. … the provision of services and technologies for the management of multilinguality across the digital, global information flow. [… the commoditisation of translation services.] (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    17. TM The rationaleThree underlying principles of current localisation efforts  Motivation: Increase return on investment (ROI) • Adapt an already developed product superficially to the requirements of foreign markets - with a minimum effort • Then sell it into these new markets for a similar price as the original product: there is no easier way to make money Use globally acceptable content (LCD / I18N) • Develop products using the lowest common denominator (LCD);the out-of-the-box product should not offend anyone • Use recognisable colours, symbols, sound and signs • Less adaptation = higher potential earnings • Reduce the localisation effort to translation • Good for revenues, but bad for diversity and the information and entertainment value of the product and/or service Re-use (leverage) as much as possible (L10N) • Process as much as possible – translate as little as possible;reuse previous translations • Limit changes to an absolute minimum (eliminate snowball effect) • Recycling of translations is good for business, but bad for living languages (and the people using them) Localisation is a success if the people buying a product or paying for a service believe that it has been developed for them, in their country – although this was not the case. (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    18. When is localisation successful? • When products and services have been linguistically and culturally adaptated to the point that… • users do not notice that the product or service they are using was developed in a different country for a different target group • Localisation… • is the linguistic and cultural adaptation with the aim to produce digital products and services for which the country of origin can no longer be traced • removes the last barrier to the equal and inclusive information society: linguistic and cultural diversity • Measure of success • I believe it’s mine, you believe it’s yours (and underneath it is all the same) (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    19. Stop a moment and reflect Do we want to preserve diversity (of languages and cultures) while at the same time removing the last barrier for the equal and inclusive information society (linguistic and cultural diversity)? Does the creation of products that use globally acceptable content preserve linguistic and cultural diversity? What is the effect of the use of Translation Memories on a language over time? (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    20. Alternative strategiesDevelopment localisationSocial, political, cultural and long-term investment reasons to localise • Social reasons • Bridging the social divide • Political reasons • Access to information • Cultural reasons • Survival of languages and cultures • Long-term investment • market penetration, access to millions of potential users, competition (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    21. Exercise I Open Calendar application and familiarise yourself with it How should this calendar application be localised and what are the issues? (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    22. Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation L10N, I18N & G11N Why localise? Development Localisation SESSION II - Characteristics SESSION III - Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    23. Characteristics SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    24. Localisation 300,000 How are products localised and how much does it cost? Original Product Cost Hierarchy Translation Testing Engineering Project Management price/word (translation: doc., online, software) price/time (engineering, testing, screen dumps) price/item (graphics, DTP) percentage (project management) Vendor selection Financial project management Project planning and analysis Project schedule Translation kit preparation Translation and editing Software engineering and testing Post Mortem Release (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    25. Localisation 300,000 How are products localised and how much does it cost? Original Product Cost Hierarchy Translation Testing Engineering Project Management price/word (translation: doc., online, software) price/time (engineering, testing, screen dumps) price/item (graphics, DTP) percentage (project management) Vendor selection Financial project management Project planning and analysis Project schedule Translation kit preparation Translation and editing Software engineering and testing Post Mortem Release (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    26. Frequent updates of online information 10 languages, 24 websites Thousands of pages in synch with English source content 4m wordcount software strings 30 languages simultaneous release 13k localisable files Localisation group: 5,000 people 150.000 terms, 23 languages 250.000 requests per month Simultaneous update and access Examples Websites: PeopleSoft Applications: Oracle Content: Bosch (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    27. Frequent updates of online information 10 languages, 24 websites Thousands of pages in synch with English source content 4m wordcount software strings 30 languages simultaneous release 13k localisable files Localisation group: 5,000 people 150.000 terms, 23 languages 250.000 requests per month Simultaneous update and access Examples Fundamental problems Identification of translatable strings (large variety of file formats) The invisible target (<visual> editors) The screen as the medium of delivery (restrictions) Process and cascading value chain (cost, quality) Websites: PeopleSoft Applications: Oracle Content: Bosch (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    28. How to access the content • Content? • Clients do not always know where the translatables are • Clients do not necessarily tell you what has been updated • Clients do not always have appropriate editors for all types of files to access content (in a visual environment) • How does it all come together • Context, space, concatenation • File (menu) • File (dialog) • File (error message) (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    29. Question: What went wrong?One minute check (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    30. Identification of translatable strings (Win32)Working with resource files • Create resource source file (.RC) • text file, contains all the string resources • Specific syntax (Windows Software Development Kit, MSDN) • Associate identifier (ID) with each resource • Reference each ID in your code • Use resource compiler, e.g. Rc.exe, to convert resource source file into resource file (.RES) (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    31. Example: QSv21.RC - Menu IDR_MAINFRAME MENU BEGIN POPUP "&File" BEGIN MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "Recent File", ID_FILE_MRU_FILE1, GRAYED MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "E&xit", ID_APP_EXIT END POPUP "&View" BEGIN MENUITEM "&Toolbar", ID_VIEW_TOOLBAR MENUITEM "&Status Bar", ID_VIEW_STATUS_BAR MENUITEM "Op&tions", ID_VIEW_OPTIONS END POPUP "&Help" BEGIN MENUITEM "&Help Topics", ID_HELP_FINDER MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "&About QSv21...", ID_APP_ABOUT END END (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    32. The invisible targetDifferent file formats .ini File [DAYS] 1="M" 2="T" 3="W" 4="T" 5="F" 6="S" 7="S" [MONTHS] 1="JANUARY" 2="FEBRUARY" 3="MARCH" 4="APRIL" 5="MAY" 6="JUNE" 7="JULY" 8="AUGUST" 9="SEPTEMBER" 10="OCTOBER" 11="NOVEMBER" 12="DECEMBER" .txt file $^%interface%^$ &^%options%^* &^%STD3%^* (^%TXT4%^* *^%rows%^* *^%cols%^* $^%interface%^$ &^%options%^* &^%STD3%^* (^%TXT4%^* $^%interface2%^$ &^%options4%^* &^%STD3%^* (^%TXT7%^* .XML file <?xml version="1.0"?> <!-- File Name: XslDemo.xml --> <INVENTORY> <BOOK> <TITLE>The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn</TITLE> <AUTHOR> <FIRSTNAME>Mark</FIRSTNAME> <LASTNAME>Twain</LASTNAME> </AUTHOR> <BINDING>mass market paperback</BINDING> <PAGES>298</PAGES> </BOOK> <BOOK> <TITLE>The Adventures of Tom Sawyer</TITLE> <AUTHOR> <FIRSTNAME>Mark</FIRSTNAME> <LASTNAME>Twain</LASTNAME> </AUTHOR> <BINDING>mass market paperback</BINDING> <PAGES>205</PAGES> </BOOK> (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    33. The screen as medium • Type of devices and screens • PC screens • Mobile devices (phones, MP3/4 players, personal organisers) • Photocopy machines • Modes of display • Line moving (‘news ticker’) • Scrolling (windows-like scroll bars) • Fixed • Restrictions • Size and layout • Memory/Storage Capacity • Power • Processor • Screen Size & Orientation • Input Methods (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    34. First mobile (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    35. Today’s devices (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    36. Roman stones Deae Minervae coh(ors) II Tungrorum mil(liaria) eq(uitata) c(ivium) L(atinorum) cui praeest C(aius) Sil(vinus) Auspex praefectus To the goddess Minerva, the second (partly) equestrian cohort of the Tungrians with one thousand men, citizens of Latin rights, Caius Silvius Auspex (dedicated this altar) when he was prefect of the same. (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    37. erased stonelapis deleticius(former inscription highlighted in red) In h(onorem) d(omus) d(ivinae) Genio [s]enturiae Satton[i]us Aeneas (centurio) po(suit). In honour of the divine house. To the genius of the company, the centurion Sattonius Aeneas erected (this statue). (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    38. Iranian Museum of Ancient Art Different scripts and languages (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    39. Cascading supply chainpromotes commoditisation and exchange-value system Exchange-value determined by market conditions could add additional percentage Project Mgmt Quality Assurance Procurement File Handling 300% Client MLV 170% SLV 100% Broker 30% Translator (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    40. Exercise II Insert source material into a GUI localisation tool .exe, .txt, .ini, .xml (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    41. Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics Identification of translatable strings (large variety of file formats) The invisible target (<visual> editors) and the screen as the medium Complex, international process and cascading value chain SESSION III – Tools and technologies SESSION IV - Outlook (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    42. Localisation Workshop SESSION I - Localisation SESSION II – Characteristics SESSION III – Tools and technologies (GUI) SESSION IV - Outlook (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    43. GUI localisation technology • Main characteristics of tools • Easy access to strings (in a visual environmnet, with restrictions) • Edit executables (no need to recompile -> much less testing) • Different editors for different resources (menus, dialogs, messages), platforms (Win32, .NET, Java) and file types • Cover standard file formats • Supply standard editors, development of specific editors possible • Fixing problems: testing and engineering • File analysis, preparation and localisation (pre-translation, leveraging) • Identification of common localisation problems • Allow easy-fix without recompilation • Project management • Examples • Alchemy Catalyst, Passolo, Multilizer, RCWintrans, SDL - Suite (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    44. GUI localisation technology • Main characteristics of tools • Easy access to strings (in a visual environmnet, with restrictions) • Edit executables (no need to recompile -> much less testing) • Different editors for different resources (menus, dialogs, messages), platforms (Win32, .NET, Java) and file types • Cover standard file formats • Supply standard editors, development of specific editors possible • Fixing problems: testing and engineering • File analysis, preparation and localisation (pre-translation, leveraging) • Identification of common localisation problems • Allow easy-fix without recompilation • Project management • Examples • Alchemy Catalyst, Passolo, Multilizer, RCWintrans, SDL - Suite Why are these tools and technologies different from those used for the translation of help and documentation? (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    45. Directly edit compiled files • Dramatically reduces the need for (re-)testing • Ease of use, less technical • More accessible to translators • Large variety of in-built functionality • Translators (visual editor, translation memory, leveraging) • Engineers (text extraction and preparation) • Testers (duplicate/missing/inconsistent hotkeys, truncation) • Project Managers (scheduling, progress report) • (Partially) integrate the roles of translator, localisation engineer, tester and project manager (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    46. Workflow • Identity files to be translated • Insert into translation environment • Pseudo translate • Prepare • Parse • Pre-translate (leverage from previous versions, use glossaries/TMs) • Add comments, protect non-translatables, implement restrictions (e.g. on length) • Chunk – prepare and export translator-specific sections • Translate – check – fix • Import sections translated by individual translators • Extract (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    47. Insert resource into a L10N environment • GUI localisation platforms do not allow you to edit files directly • Files are first imported into a tool-specific file format • Specific editors handle different types of resources (menu, dialog, messages) • Visual editing support is generally only available for Win32 and .NET content • BUT – what you see is NOT what you get (WYSINWYG), it is only an approximation (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    48. Prepare source for L10N • Pre-translation • Restrictions? • Messages can have length restrictions • Untranslatables? • Certain strings should not be translated and can be marked as such • Company names, catch phrases • Strings which are not part of the visible interface • Strings which are expected by the programme • Creation of translation kits • Dealing with ‘unusual’ file formats • Many tools allow the creation of custom editors (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    49. Determine the size of the project • Evaluate the size of project • Number of words • Number and type of dialogs • Simple • Complex • Identify linguistic resources (TM) • Previously translated versions • Terminology / glossaries / translation memories (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre

    50. Pseudo translation • Estimate the effect ‘localisation’ will have on the interface • In the localisation environment • Layout • In the running application • Layout (dynamic resources) • Functionality • Character encoding issues • Non-translatables? • Hard-coded strings? (c) 2006 Localisation Research Centre