Cerebral Localisation . Prof.Dr. S. Naz Yeni . Objectives . To learn functional areas of the brain and the brain stem To learn how to localise the neurologic symptoms and signs to particular areas in the brain.
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Prof.Dr. S. Naz Yeni
Frontal lobe is the greatest lobe. Its boundaries are parietal lobe posteriorly and temporal lobe under slyvian sulcus. Areas of major clinical importance
Motor cortex (area 4)
Suplementary motor cortex (area 6)
Frontal eye fields (area 8)
Cortical centre for micturation
Broca’s speech area (dominant hemisphere)
Neighboring structures of clinical interest: olfactory bulb optic nerve
Ipsilateral optic nerve atrophy
Contralateral papilla edema
Auras implying temporal lobe epilepsy;
Hippocampus: epigastric rising sensation, deja vu, jamais vu like feelings..
Amygdala: fear, palpitation, autonomic symptoms (piloerection, sweating, mydriasis)
Uncus: gustatory, olfactory hallucinations
Lateral temporal lobe: Vestibular, auditory hallucinations, complicated visual hallucinations
Ideomotor apraxia: when asked “as if to brush teeth” patient can not perform. However in daily life spontaneous acts are performed.
Ideational apraxia: the patient can not program, plan multistep activities. Daily life may be problematic.
Signs and symptoms;
Midbrain is located above pons and below
Edinger westphal nuclei
4 th nerve nuclei
lower down in the pons:
Additional features may be;