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GLOBAL TRENDS: UNICEF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY WORK FOR EQUITY. Isabel Ortiz, Associate Director Policy and Practice UNICEF Bangkok, 13-17 June 2011. Social and Economic Policy Work. Strong progress in main areas: Child Poverty and Disparities Social Budgeting and Crisis Response
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GLOBAL TRENDS: UNICEF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY WORK FOR EQUITY Isabel Ortiz, Associate Director Policy and Practice UNICEF Bangkok, 13-17 June 2011
Social and Economic Policy Work Strong progress in main areas: Child Poverty and Disparities Social Budgeting and Crisis Response Social Protection Migration Operational focus: Policy Advocacy and Leveraging Key issues: How to make a stronger case for equity How to become more relevant to policy-makers
Our World: Development for Whom? Global Income Distribution by Countries, 1990-2007 (or latest available) in PPP constant 2005 international dollars Source: Ortiz and Cummins (2011) UNICEF
Children and Youth at the Bottom Global Income Distribution and Children/Youth in 2007 in PPP constant 2005 international dollars Source: Ortiz and Cummins (2011) UNICEF
Challenges: Poverty is Beyond Income Poverty UN Multidimensional Poverty: The need for public investment in all areas is overwhelming
MDGs and Inequality: Beware of National Averages Namibia – Reduction of Under-5 Child Mortality Rate U5MR = 72 U5MR = 42
Challenges: Youth Employment Source: ILO 2010
Challenges: Ethnic Disparities Thailand
Challenges: Cumulative Impacts of Food, Financial and Economic Crisis . Local Food Prices and Global Food Price Index, Jan. 2007-Jan. 2011(Jan. 2007=100) Source: Ortiz, Chai and Cummins UNICEF 2011, based on FAO data
The case for Equity: Good for Children, Good for Growth and Political Stability
Inequality Slows Down Economic Growth Per Capita Growth and Change in Income Inequality in 94 Developing Countries, 1990-2008 (or latest available) Source: Ortiz and Cummins (2011) UNICEF
Inequality Generates Political Instability Income Inequality and Political Stability in 141 Countries, 2008 Source: Ortiz and Cummins (2011) UNICEF
UNICEF Work on Child Poverty and Disparities • In 2010 further 6 countries have joined the Initiative, total 52 countries • 18 reports completed, 27 near completion • Generate new country level evidence on multidimensional child poverty and policies for equity • Mobilize national interest in addressing multidimensional child poverty and redress inequalities • HQ ands ROs support to the country teams (ToRs, data assistance, peer reviews), community of practice, e-discussion (1000+ members), publications - recent Child Poverty Insights include ASG JomoK.S., Sarah Cook, A. Barrientos, NailaKabeer • Key issue: how to leverage governments and financial institutions to invest in children?
UNICEF Work on Social Budgeting and Crisis Response • Engagement in 95 countries – Analysis/monitoring of expenditure allocations for children and women • A Recovery for All– Crisis response • Support from HQ (advise, materials, development of new tools for policy analysis, follow up), as well as consultant roster, training, CoP, e-discussion (1500+ members, contributors include Nobel Laureate Paul Krugman, Richard Jolly, former USG J.A. Ocampo and many others) • Working with partners – UN, EU, World Bank, 11 pilots with IMF • Majority of requested Thematic Funds for social budgeting and SP • Several publications - notably “ Expenditures Recovery for All – a survey of public expenditures in 126 countries” • Key issue: how to leverage governments and financial institutions to invest in children?
UNICEF Work on Social Protection • Work in 76 countries • Support from HQ (advise, materials, missions) • COSTING TOOL (high demand) with ILO • Training (IDS, EPRI, ILO) • Working with partners: Social Protection Floor Initiative, World Bank, Help Age, Save the Children • UNICEF working group, Guidance Note • International advocacy – participation high level events Key Issue: Continue work, move away from pilots and small interventions, support countries to build social protection systems UNICEF support • Technical assistance to design, scale-up, execute and monitor cash and non-cash transfers • Advocacy for a child-sensitive approach– eg. One-UN crisis response initiative for a Social Protection Floor; working with Helpage, World Bank and other partners
UNICEF Work on Migration • Work in 61 Countries • Global Migration Group (GMG) • UNICEF (Richard Morgan) chairing the GMG form January to June 2011 • Handbook on mainstreaming Migration into Poverty Reduction and Development Strategies, launched during the 2010 GFMD (UNICEF with IOM, UNDP, and ILO) • Migration Statistics • In partnership with UNDESA, launched MigrantInfo.org, online database Key issue: In terms of numbers of children affected, this is a lesser significant area (opportunity costs: should not deviate from addressing those areas that have much larger impacts such as the other areas), some countries more affected than others - generally continue work
Leveraging for Equity and Children’s Rights Leveraging governments: • Over 80 UNICEF offices engaged in PRS/National Development Strategies • HQ support: advise, materials, development of new tools for policy analysis, follow up Leveraging the World Bank, the IMF and the European Commission • World Bank: Dialogue centred on • Equity in PRSPs • Expansion social protection • Poverty and social impact analysis of loans • IMF – policy dialogue on priority spending, 11 pilot countries • European Commission – centred on incorporating child rights in PRSPs/National Development Strategies, social budgets and, priority spending for children Key issue: How to ensure that UNICEF is “action oriented”, supportive of operations that leverage for children’s rights?
UNICEF Work on Assessing the Impact of Economic Trends and Policies on Children • Initiative initiated amid the global crisis, in order to generate empirical evidence on the impact of economic policies and shock on children and families, and to inform policy advocacy for timely and effective responses • Focused on West Africa, but global coverage • Tools provided • Rapid Surveys and Sentinel Site Monitoring of Crisis Impacts • Simulation Techniques to Understand the Potential Impacts of a Crisis • Social Budget Tracking and Analysis • Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) – economic decisions are often taken by some economic rationale, need to look at distributional impacts • Website with all instruments and case studies to be launched soon Real time monitoring of child vulnerabilities: Global Pulse – UNICEF main role, with SG office, UNDP, others
It Can Be Done: Remember that Not Long Ago There were children working in England’s mines and factories… …Spanish low class emigrants were going to Latin America in search of employment… … poverty was widespread in the US or South Korea… …and in South Africa’s apartheid
REDUCING POVERTY AND INEQUALITY IS OUR GENERATIONAL DUTY Thank you email@example.com