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Review of Long-term Memory
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  1. Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Long-term memory Attention Sensory Input Retrieval Review of Long-term Memory • Retrieval transfers info from LTM to STM • Forgetting - inability to retrieve previously available information • Why do people forget?

  2. Forgetting theories • Poor encoding theories • Decay theories • Interference theories • Retrieval-cue theories

  3. Sensory memory The senses momentarily register amazing detail. Short-term memory A few items are both noticed and encoded. Long-term storage Some items are altered or lost. Retrieval from long-term memory Depending on interference,retrieval cues, moods, and motives, some things get retrieved, some don’t. When do we forget? • It can occur at any memory stage

  4. X Short-term memory Long-term memory Encoding Encoding failure leads to forgetting Forgetting as encoding failure • Info never encoded into LTM

  5. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) Which is the real penny?

  6. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) Answer

  7. Encoding failures • Even though you’ve seen thousands of pennies, you’ve probably never looked at one closely to encode specific features

  8. Other encoding failure demos • What letters accompany the number 5 on your telephone? • JKL • Where is the number 0 on your calculator? • Bottom middle • According to this theory, objects seen frequently, but info never encoded into LTM

  9. Encoding Short-term memory Long-term memory X Retrieval Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Forgetting as retrieval failure • Not all forgetting is due to encoding failures • Sometimes info IS encoded into LTM, but we can’t retrieve it

  10. Tip of the tongue phenomenon • a.k.a. TOT experience • Example: ???

  11. Retrieval failure theories • Decay theories • Interference theories • Retrieval cue theories

  12. 100% Average percentage of information retained 20 mins 1 hr 8 hrs 24 hrs 2 days 6 days 31 days Interval between original learning of nonsense syllables and memory test Decay theories • Memories fade away or decay gradually if unused • Time plays critical role • Ability to retrieve info declines with time after original encoding

  13. Retrieval failure theories • Decay theories • Interference theories

  14. Interference theories • “Memories interfering with memories” • Forgetting NOT caused by mere passage of time • Caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory

  15. Types of interference Retroactive Interference Proactive Interference Two types of interference

  16. Retroactive interference • When a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information • Example: When new phone number interferes with ability to remember old phone number

  17. French 101 Mid-term exam Study French Study Spanish papier papel livre plume libro pluma école escuela retroactive interference Retroactive interference • Example: Learning a new language interferes with ability to remember old language F-

  18. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Proactive interference • Opposite of retroactive interference • When an OLD memory interferes with remembering NEW information • Example: Memories of where you parked your car at school the past week interferes with ability find car today

  19. SPANISH 101 Mid-term exam Study French Study Spanish papier papel livre plume libro pluma école escuela proactive interference Proactive interference • Example: Previously learned language interferes with ability to remember newly learned language F-

  20. Retrieval failure theories • Decay theories • Interference theories • Retrieval cue theories

  21. Retrieval cue theories • Retrieval cue - a clue, prompt or hint that can help memory retrieval • Forgetting the result of using improper retrieval cues

  22. Which retrieval cueswork best? • Encoding specificity principle - cues used during initial learning more effective during later retrieval than novel cues

  23. Which retrieval cueswork best? • Context-dependent memory - improved ability to remember if tested in the same environment as the initial learning environment • Examples: class, smell

  24. Learn at 3pm Perform better at 3pm Than 9pm 12 12 12 9 9 9 3 3 3 6 6 6 Context dependent effects • Time of day is also important

  25. Context-dependent effects • Words heard underwater are best recalled underwater • Words heard on land are best recalled on land Percentage of words recalled Water/ land Land/ water Water/ water Land/ land Different contexts for hearing and recall Same contexts for hearing and recall

  26. State-dependent effects • Recall improved if internal physiological or emotional state is the same during testing and initial encoding • Context-dependent - external, environmental factors • State-dependent - internal, physiological factors

  27. State-dependent effects • Mood or emotions also a factor • Bipolar depressives • Info learned in manic state, recall more if testing done during manic state • Info learned in depressed state, recall more if testing done during depressed state

  28. Drunk during learning Recall better if drunk Than if sober State dependent effects

  29. Eyewitness testimony • Schema - mental representation of an object, scene or event • Example: schema of a countryside may include green grass, hills, farms, a barn, cows etc.

  30. Eyewitness testimony • Scripts - type of schema • Mental organization of events in time • Example of a classroom script: Come into class, sit down, talk to friends, bell rings, instructor begins to speak, take notes, bell rings again; leave class etc.

  31. Memory distortion • Memory can be distorted as people try to fit new info into existing schemas • Giving misleading information after an event causes subjects to unknowingly distort their memories to incorporate the new misleading information

  32. Accident Leading question: “About how fast were the cars going When they smashed into each other?” Memory construction Loftus experiment • Subjects shown video of an accident between two cars • Some subjects asked: How fast were the cars going when the smashed into each other? • Others asked: How fast were the cars going when the hit each other?

  33. Word Used in Question Average Speed Estimate smashed collided bumped hit contacted 41 m.p.h. 39 m.p.h. 38 m.p.h. 34 m.p.h. 32 m.p.h. Loftus results