Unit Two. Teaching Objectives. Enlarge vocabulary 2. Talk about exercise and its’relationship with the body 3. Read for the pattern of cause and effect 4. Learn to write about argumentation . Section A. Iron and the Effects of exercise. Section B. Does Exercise Have
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Teaching Objectives • Enlarge vocabulary • 2. Talk about exercise and its’relationship • with the body • 3. Read for the pattern of cause and • effect • 4. Learn to write about argumentation
Section A Iron and the Effects of exercise Section B Does Exercise Have Unexpected benefits? Sections Section C Exercise for the Old
Section A Iron and the Effects of exercise
Table of Contents Background Information Warming-up Activities Text Analysis Vocabulary and Structure Vocabulary Testing Writing
Background Information (1) Iron is a trace mineral required for red blood cell formation and adequate formation of hemoglobin (血色素)- the protein that carries oxygen in the blood and myoglobin（肌血球素）, a similar protein that carries oxygen in the muscle tissue. Iron also plays a central role in many vital biochemical pathways and enzyme （酶）systems including those involved with energy metabolism（代谢）, neurotransmitter production (serotonin （含于血液中的复合胺） and dopamine（多巴胺）), collagen formation and immunesystem function.
Background Information (2) The process of depletion of iron stores can occur rapidly or very slowly and is dependent on the balance between iron intake and iron requirements. 1. Reductions can detrimentally alter exercise performance. 2. Iron status is altered in certain populations of chronically exercising individuals. 3. Women may have an increased prevalence for exercise-related alterations in body iron. 4. It is reasonable to question whether these manifestations are specifically detrimental to the health or the athletic performance of the individual afflicted.
Background Information (3) Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world. Two---thirds of children and women of childbearing age are estimated to suffer from iron deficiency and one---third are prone to disorders of iron deficiency---like anemia. Female athletes, in particular, are at risk for IDNA because aerobic exercise may result in a significant depletion of body iron stores . Iron deficiency may negatively affect endurance performance and muscle fatigability(易疲劳性).
Background Information (4) Female athletes are advised to pay particular attention to maintaining an adequate consumption of iron in their diet. Distance runners should also pay attention to maintaining an adequate consumption of ironrich foods. Vegetarian athletes should be particularly vigilant to include iron-rich foods in their diet.
Background Information (5) Ten Tips to Improve Your Iron Intake 1.Eat lean meat regularly for top iron intake. 2.See red-- red meats are richer in haem iron than white meat. 3.Get plenty of Vitamin C. 4.Eat red meat and vegetables together. 5.Keep your meals tannin(丹宁酸) free. 6.Beware of dieting. 7.Extra iron for exercise. 8.Don’t rely on supplements. 9.Choose from the four main food groups. 10.Be extra iron start if you are at risk.
Group Discussions 1.What do you think the effects of exercise are? every coin has two sides;bring us harm;prompt by a sudden impulse; start a intense exercise; injure;people who go on a fat-reducing diet; the more exercise they take, the greater loss of iron they will suffer;result in sudden death;be worth concern. 2.What advise can you give on physical exercise? Exercise;be good for your health;be suitable to your physical conditions; progressiveness; regularity;ingredients; add more iron-rich foods
Comprehension of the text (1) 1.What’s the finding of the new study by a group of researchers from Purdue University? The new study suggests that even moderate exercise may lead to reduced iron in the blood of women. 2. Who is Roseanne M. Lyle? She is an associate professor at Purdue University. 3. If a woman suffers from iron deficiency, what can she do to bounce back? She may consume additional meat or take iron supplements.
Comprehension of the text (2) 4. Why are women more likely to suffer from iron deficiency? Because they have a monthly bleeding. 5. How does exercise cause iron deficiency? Through a variety of mechanisms.For example, some iron is lost in sweat, and intense endurance exercise is sometimes associated with the bleeding of the digestive system. 6. How many stages does iron deficiency go through? Three.
People are advised to have a yearly blood test to check blood iron reserves. Comprehension of the text (3) • What does it mean when you are in the third stage of iron deficiency? You are in trouble. Your iron reserves go to zero and you may feel weak, tired and out of breath. 8. What should people do if they don’t know whether they have an iron deficiency or not?
He should avoid drinking coffee tea with meals. Comprehension of the text (4) 9. What are good sources of iron? They are meat, chicken, fish, dates, beans, and some leafy green vegetables. 10.If someone has low iron reserves, what should he avoid?
Central topic: Exercise may lead to more loss of iron in females, which in turn produces serious effects on their health. According to sports medicine experts, active women should pay more attention to iron deficiency in their bodies and take correct measures to remedy it before it really becomes a problem. Text Analysis- (1)
Text Analysis- (2) Main idea ? Part III Part I Part II Part IV
illustration (举证法) quotation (引言法) contrast (对比法) Text Analysis- (3) Main idea ? Exercise, even moderate exercise, may lead to reduced iron in the blood of women. Part I Paras:1-3 Devices for developing it ?
Text Analysis- (4) Main idea? This part is about the causes for both iron deficiency among women in general and more serious deficiency among active women. Part II Paras:4-6 Devices for developing it ? quotation (引言法)(Paras. 4 & 5)
quotation (引言法):(Paras. 8 & 9) general-specific (总分法) refutation (批驳法): Text Analysis- (5) Main idea？ The author makes clear both the effects of iron deficiency on people’s health and the importance of checking iron reserves to active people. Part III Paras. 7 - 9 Devices for developing it ?
quotation (引言法):(Paras. 11-12) exemplification (举例法): Text Analysis- (6) Main idea？ The author gives his advice on how to remedy iron deficiency. Part IV Paras:10-12 Devices for developing it ?
Words and Expressions go up liable undo the problem derive be out of breath indicate lead to sum up interfere add to evidence consume take in up to sufficient
Structures Typical patterns for showing the resultsof sb.’s observation / scientific research(1) Typical patterns for Typical patterns for argumentation (2) Typical patterns for suggestion(3)
liable adj prone; inclined; apt; likely易于； 易遭受… Without careful investigation, youare liable tocome to wrong conclusion. 不仔细调查，你就会得到错误的结论。 If you drive your car to the danger of the public, you will make yourself liable to a heavy fine or to imprisonment. The post office isn’t liable for damage to a parcel sent by mail unless it is insured.
derive v to get something, esp an advantage or a advantage or a pleasant feeling, from sth得来；获得，得到 derive knowledge from reading从阅读中学到知识 derive a conclusion from facts从事实推出结论 Our city is noted for splendid old-fashioned buildings from which tourists can derive great pleasure. 我们的城市以辉煌的古代建筑而闻名，游客可以从游览中获得很多乐趣。 Many English words arederived fromLatin.
indicate v to show that a particular situation exists, or that sth is likely to be true表明，暗示…可能性 A survey of retired people hasindicated that most are independent and enjoy life. 一个对退休人员的调查表明，大多数退休老人都能独立生活而且享受天伦。 There are indications thatthe public library’s readership has been on the rise/increase. 有迹象表明公共图书馆的读者量呈上升趋势。
interfere v 1. take action affecting sb else’s affairs without right to do so干涉,干预 interfere inothers’ private affairs干涉他人的私事 aninterferingold lady爱管闲事的老太太 Don’tinterfere inthe matters that do not concern you! 2. distract or hinder sb干扰,妨碍 Don’tinterfere withhim while he is working. 他工作时不要打搅他.
evidence n 1.facts or signs that show clearly that sth exists or is true证据，证明 give evidence for/against; show evidence of The scientist produced much experimental data asevidence forhis theory. 这位科学家提供了大量的实验数据证明他的理论。 2.evident adj easy to see,notice or understand 明显的，显然的 It is evident thatan increasing number of unskilled workers are likely to face the danger of being laid off.
Only a student whoconsumes much of his time and energy in studying can achieve good results. consume v to use time, energy, goods etc消费，花费 consume resources consume energies cut down/ increaseconsumption
sufficient adj as much as is needed for particular purpose 足够的 I promised to meet him in a week, providing I had sufficient time to finish all the work assigned to me. 只要有足够的时间完成布置给我的所有工作，我保证 一周内与他见面。 到目前为止，我们还没有足够的资料来说明地震造成 的确切损失情况。 So far we haven’t hadsufficient information to state the exact damage caused by the earthquake.
go up undo the problem go up: 上升,增长 The price of cigarettes isgoing up. Unemploymenthas gone upagain. undo the problem: 解决问题 解决水土流失问题的最好办法是退耕还林。 The best way toundo the problemof soil erosion is to reforest the cultivated land.
be out of breath/ date/ tune withlead to be out of breath/ date/ tune with: 气喘吁吁/过时了/与······格格不入 In the eyes of some people, the spirit of hard work and plain livinghas been out of tune withour times. 在一些人眼里，艰苦朴素的精神已经与我们的时代格格不入了。 lead to: 导致 She listened attentively,taking inevery word he said and asking questions from time to time. 她聚精会神地听讲,听懂了他说的每个字并不时地问问题。
sum up add…to sum up: 总结，收集So,to sum up, the environmental protection should call for more of our concern. 因此，概括地讲，环境保护应受到更多的关注。 add…to: 在…中增加 More than twenty years of reform and opening-up hasaddedcolor and variety toour life. 二十多年的改革开放使我们的生活丰富多彩。
take in up to take in: 吸收，理解 She listened attentively,taking inevery word he said and asking questions from time to time. 她聚精会神地听讲,听懂了他说的每个字并不时地问问题。 up to: 多达；上至······ This film star finds favor with everyone in her country,up tothe president and down to the boy who sweeps the floor. 这位影星受到她的国家里每个人的喜欢,上至总统,下到扫地的男孩。
Typical patterns for showing the resultsof sb.’s observation / scientific research(1) 原句1: Now a new studyby a team of PurdueUniversity researcherssuggests that even moderate exercise may lead to reduced iron in the blood of women. (L. 2) 句型提炼 A new study (research / opinion poll / survey) by sb. suggests / indicates that…某人进行的一项新的研究(科研／民意测验／调查)表明····
这个科研小组进行的一项新研究表明全球温室 效应已对生物环境产生了破坏性的影响。 A new studyby this research teamsuggests thatthe global greenhouse effect has produced a destructive impact on the biological environment. A succession of scientificstudies indicates that exercise can help improve balance and strength in elderly individuals.
Typical patterns for Typical patterns for argumentation (2) 原句:People think that if they’re not at the third stage, nothing is wrong, but that’s not true. (L.40) 句型提炼 Some/Many people think/believe/claim that…, but this/that (statement) is not/may not be true/the case. 一些/很多人认为/声称 ······，但是这种/那种看/说法是/也许是不正确的。
Some people think that their education ends up with their graduation, but that is not true. What schools do is only to teach students tricks of learning and prepare them for continued learning in their later life. 有些人认为他们的学习随着学业的结束而结束。这种看法是不正确的。学校所做的只是教给学生学习的方法，为其在今后生活中继续学习做准备。
Many people claim that they never buy things according to what advertisements say, but this may not be the case. Nowadays, it’s not possible to turn a blind eye to advertisements; nor is it possible for one to avoid being influenced by advertisements. 许多人声称他们从不根据广告上说的去买东西。但事实可能并不是这样。如今人们不可能对广告视而不见，也不可能不受广告的影响。
Typical patterns for suggestion(3) 原句: In general, it’s better to undo the problem byadding more iron-rich foods to the diet, because iron supplements can have serious shortcomings. (L. 53) 句型提炼 It’s better /suggestive/ advisable (for sb.) to do sth. (It’s advisable that sb. should do sth.)by v.+ ing..., because …(对于······ 来说) 最好是通过······来······，因为······
It is better for the laid-off to enhance their competitive power by attending skill trainings, because the strongest competitors have the best chance of finding jobs in the labor market. 对于失业者来说最好的方法是通过参加技能培训来提高自己的竞争能力，因为劳务市场上竞争力强的人最有机会找到工作。
人们最好通过完善自我来面对未来的挑战，因为未来的冲击不是以人的意志为转移的。人们最好通过完善自我来面对未来的挑战，因为未来的冲击不是以人的意志为转移的。 It is advisable for people to face up to the future challenges by bettering themselves, because the future shock is independent of man’s will.
Vocabulary Testing -(1) Directions:For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. 1.The suspect’s fingerprints on the gun were the main ____ against him. A) crime B) information C) conviction D) evidence D) evidence
Vocabulary Testing -(2) 2. In general , the amount that a student spends for housing should be held to one-fifth the total ____ for living expenses. A) acceptable B) available C) advisable D) applicable B) available 3.In Britain people ____ four million tons of potatoes every year. A) consume B) swallow C) exhaust D) dispose A) consume
Vocabulary Testing -(3) 4. When you go to the doctor he asks you to describe your ____ so that he can make a diagnosis (诊断). A) indications B) signs C) symbols D) symptoms D) symptoms 5. We have not ______ information to state the exact damage. A) abundant B) sufficient C) plenty D) efficient B) sufficient
Vocabulary Testing -(4) 6. The chairman asked members to cast their votes for or against the__________. A) concept B) conclusion C) proposal D) prediction C) proposal 7. I didn’t receive any ______ from my father. A) preference B) conference C) inference D) reference C) inference
Vocabulary Testing -(5) 8. He found a _______ for his grief in constant hard work. A) remedy B) settlement C) method D) prescription A) remedy 9. The lecture was rather boring, but the ______ discussion proved fruitful. A) latter B) subsequent C) consequent D) succesive B) subsequent
Vocabulary Testing -(6) 10. It is most __________that he should attend the conference. A) acceptable B) advisable C) available D) applicable B) advisable
at risk up to engage in derive …from go up sum up add… to out of breath lead to result in in an effort to indicate that Directions:Fill in the blanks with appropriate words and expressions. 1. An experienced teacher has the habit of concluding his lectures by_____________. summing up 2. His heart condition makes him______________. out of breath 3. This misprint ______great confusion. led to
at risk up to engage in derive …from go up sum up add… to out of breath lead to result in in an effort to indicate that 4. The one pleasure that Einstein __________ his great fame was the ability it gave him to help others. derived from 5. I have no time to ___________ in gossip. engage in 6. I can take _______ four people in my car. up to 7. Many words ______________to this edition of the dictionary. have been added