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Cells and Energy. Chapter 4 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration 4.6 Fermentation. Chemical Energy and ATP. ATP is needed for most ALL processes in the cell

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cells and energy

Cells and Energy

Chapter 4

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP

4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis

4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration

4.6 Fermentation

chemical energy and atp
Chemical Energy and ATP
  • ATP is needed for most ALL processes in the cell
    • Molecules in food like starch, sugars, and fats store energy in the bonds

Starch molecule

Glucose molecule

slide3

ATP transfersthe energy from food to the cell function

  • Break bonds – Release energy
    • ATP ADP + P
  • Form bonds – store energy
    • ADP + P ATP
atp adp amp
ATP, ADP, AMP

A = Adenosine

P = Phosphate

ADP

ATP

ATP- fully charged

ADP- half charged

AMP- uncharged

T = Tri= Three

D = Di- Two

M = Mono= One

Energy

Energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Partially

charged

battery

Fully

charged

battery

where does atp come from
Where does ATP come from?
  • Living things have to break down carbon compoundsto make ATP
  • We digest food: break down to carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

Lipids 146 ATP

Carbohydrates = 36 ATP

Proteins- usually broken down into

amino acids

- about the same amt of ATP as carbs

plants don t eat
Plants don’t eat…
  • Where do they get their food?
  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS!

Process by which plants convert LIGHT ENERGY into CHEMICAL ENERGY (sugars)

LIGHT FOOD

how do you get energy
How do you get energy?
  • Autotroph: Maketheir own food
  • Heterotroph: need to CONSUMEfood
  • Chemoautotroph: Do not Eat. Do not go through Photosynthesis. CHEMOSYNTHESIS- use CHEMICAL ENERGY to make ATP.
      • Live near cracks of ocean floor
      • Energy comes from chemicals
      • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
section 4 1 review
Section 4.1 Review

Autotroph—makes own food

Heterotroph—needs to eat food

  • What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph?
  • How are ADP and ATP related?
  • What is the use of chemicals for asource of energy known as?

ADP is missing a phosphate (and energy)

ATP has all 3 phosphate and lots of energy

They go back and forth

Chemosynthesis

4 2 overview of photosynthesis
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis
  • Producers make their own food
  • Plants are producers.
  • Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.

light

carbon dioxide + water

glucose + oxygen

where does photosynthesis happen
Where does photosynthesis happen?

Chloroplast!

  • Go inside a chloroplast.
  • Find a Thylakoid– disc-like
  • Inside the thylakoid - Chlorophyllis a molecule that absorbs light energy.
two processes of photosynthesis
Two Processes of Photosynthesis
  • Light Dependent Reaction
  • Calvin Cycle
overview
Overview

Light Dependent Reaction

H2O

(Water)

O2

(Oxygen)

ATP

NADPH

CO2

Carbon dioxide

Glucose

C6H12O6

Calvin Cycle

overview of photosynthesis
Overview of Photosynthesis

Light Dependent Reaction

1. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight.

    • Wateris brokendown
    • Oxygenis released
  • Oxygen leaves the plant and goes into the air
  • ATP and NADPH are made to FUEL the Calvin cycle
  • Calvin Cycle
  • CO2is added to a cycle of reactions to build larger molecules (ATP and NADPH are used)
  • A molecule of simple sugar is formed
    • Glucose (C6H12O6)

6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2

section 4 2 review
Section 4.2 Review
  • What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
  • What goes into the light reactions? What comes out as a waste product? What is given off that is needed to power the Calvin Cycle.
  • What goes into the dark reactions? What comes out as a useful product? What else comes out that is needed for the light reactions?

Absorbs energy from sunlight

IN: light and water

Waste OUT: Oxygen

OUT: ATP and NAPDH

IN: CO2, ATP and NADPH

OUT Product: Glucose (C6H12O6)

OUT: ADP and NADP+

4 4 overview of cellular respiration

mitochondrion

animal cell

4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration
  • There is LOTS of energy available in GLUCOSE--FOOD.
  • If all the energy in food was released at once, you would blow up!
  • Energy has to be released and CAPTURED- a little bit at a time
  • Requirements: OXYGEN!
  • Where? In the mitochondria
glycolysis splitting sugar
Glycolysis- splitting sugar
  • First Step
  • anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)
  • takes place in cytoplasm
  • splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules
  • produces some ATP molecules in the process
if there is oxygen two stages of cellular respiration occur
If there IS Oxygen: Two Stages of Cellular Respiration Occur
  • Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    • O2Required
    • Makes LOTS of ATP
    • H2O made as waste product
  • Krebs cycle
    • Breaks up the compounds from Glycolysis
    • Makes some ATP
    • Makes more molecules that carry energy to send to the ETC
    • Produces CO2
slide21

Cellular Respiration

  • Kreb’s Cycle
  • Electron Transport Chain

With Oxygen

Glycolysis

Without Oxygen

  • Fermentation
  • Alcoholic or Lactic Acid
if there is no oxygen
If there is NO Oxygen??
  • Fermentation occurs
      • No more ATP is made.
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Two types
    • _______________ fermentation (Products: CO2 and Alcohol)
    • __________ ________ fermentation (Product: Lactic acid)

Alcoholic

Lactic acid

section 4 4 review part a
Section 4.4 Review—Part A

Cytoplasm

IN: Glucose OUT: 2 ATP & 2 - 3 carbon molecules

No oxygen present; to allow for glycolysis to continue

Lactic acid Alcoholic

Where does glycolysis take place?

What goes into glycolysis? What comes out of glycolysis?

Why does fermentation occur?

What are the two different types of fermentation?

section 4 4 review part b
Section 4.4 Review—Part B

Mitochondria

IN: 3 carbon molecules OUT: ATP, CO2

IN: Energy Storing compounds and Oxygen

OUT: Water and ATP!!!

Reactants of one are basically the products of the other

Where does Cellular respiration take place?

What goes into the Kreb’s cycle? What comes out?

What goes into electron transport? What comes out?

How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?