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Confucianism Knowing Your Place
China’s Feudal Age • China was divided into many warring kingdoms - No unity, anarchy reigned. • K’ung Fu-tzu (551-471 BC) worked for city-state of Lu. • Wondered why things were bad??? Did he exist? Was he created as a foil to Christian evangelism? Name means “Master Teacher” and ideas predate his existence. Depictions show in wrong clothing
The Master Finds His Answer • Looked into distant past to a time of order • King Wu Wang & the Duke of Zhou • The Duke knew his place & accepted it. • Chaos in present b/c people acted outside of social status CONFUCIUS
Develops “Confucianism” for PEACE & STABILITY • Rigid Social hierarchy based on social relationships and mutual obligations • 5 Key Relationships 1) Emperor to subject 2) father to son 3) husband to wife 4) older to younger brother 5) friend to friend
“Face”, the Glue of the System • You must appear to be that which you are. • If not, you have broken the relationship and no obligations exist. • Don’t humiliate others as that makes them “lose face” Face in China in Business
The Emperor’s Role • Mandate of Heaven • Emperor rules because god chose him to be born as • If he loses face, citizens don’t have to treat him as emperor… • REVOLUTION!!!
A Man’s First Responsibility is in Service to the Emperor • Chun-tzu = educated upper class. Work to support & maintain the system • Law of Avoidance = b/c of 5 Key Relationship’s emphasis on family, chun-tzu must work away from home to avoid nepotism
What of Women??? • NO authority outside home. But as chun-tzu worked elsewhere, women ran the home • AND FOOTBINDING??? • Used to set upper class women apart to show class ONE OF THE LAST WOMEN WITH BOUND FEET
The Analects of Confucius • Confucian “Bible” • Book of Quotations from Confucius • Tells how to live in the middle and to avoid excess in any form.
Along Comes Chu Hsi • Retooled Chinese philosophy by adding in Buddhist elements = NEO-CONFUCIANISM • Now a religion • Supreme Ultimate (god) = the force • Li and Chi
Confucian Society • 1) Farmers were at the top (produce food to maintain order). Then 2) Police (provide the order) then 3) Artisans (make tools for top two). • 4) Merchants on bottom (opposite Europe, reason for relative decline)
Confucianism in our world • Authority more important than rights • Education important • Peace and order essential • Use of military means balance has been lost • Teaching Confucius today