Promote moral development
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PROMOTE MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Some reformers felt that the answer to societies problems was personal behavior. By the early 1800s… There was a lot of liquor around here A barrel of hard cider sat by the door of thousands of farmhouses, available to everyone in the family.

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Promote moral development

  • Some reformers felt that the answer to societies problems was personal behavior

By the early 1800s… There was a lot of liquor around here

A barrel of hard cider sat by the door of thousands of farmhouses, available to everyone in the family.

.. Until well into the 19th century, most people, including doctors, considered alcohol nutritious and healthful...hard liquor was cheap and readily available, unlike milk, coffee and tea…Particularly in the 19th century, the consumption of liquor was a regular daily activity for most Americans, including children. Adults drank at home, at work and at play, usually every day and often all day

~ Campbell, Robert A.

Demon Rum or Easy Money

In many cities, the tolling of a bell at 11 a.m. and again at 4 p.m. marked “grog time,” when workers were granted an alcohol-soaked break.

  • Most customers were men who passed through the swing-doors to join their male comrades in the bar- room

  • HOWEVER many saloons also had a side door known as the 'ladies' entrance'.

    Until 1900, saloons were open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

Temperance Crusadedef: the movement against the sale of alcohol. ** supported Prohibitiondef: law to prohibit the making and the sale of alcohol.Many in the movement wanted an outright ban on all alcoholic drinks, including beer, wine, and hard liquor. They saw alcohol as a source of social problems including violence, crime, and poverty

  • Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

  • Anti-Saloon League

Anti-Saloon League Campaign, Dayton



At First - Pledged to stop drinking hard or distilled spirits, such as whiskey and gin only (toxic to body and soul)

*Some wine and beer had healthy benefits (not counted) nor was the wine in the Communion

 Later, it became more popular to give up alcohol totally or to become a "teetotaler."

- was signed in a public meeting and witnessed by all the people present.

This was an important to the movement

WHY? Making a public declaration reinforced its importance and made it more difficult to reverse. Those who witnessed your actions were often available later to give you strength in keeping your word.

Display as a reminder…

  • From a book of The Ten Dialogues on the Effects of Ardent Spirits

  • Members of an imaginary temperate family consisting of Father, Mother, James, Thomas, and Philip.

  • Each dialogue contains a graphic story about the effects of alcohol

  • Kept in a chapbook (pocket size)

  • III  James and Philip discussing James' recent visit with their father to a prison. James relates the squalid conditions of the prison:

  • the doors  locked with a padlock so large one could hardly have carried it

  • the windows with "bars of iron in them,"

  • the rooms so dark and gloomy

  • The boys asked their father why the men were shut up in those ugly rooms. The father's reply was that one half of them were led to their crimes by the habit of strong drink.

Focus on domestic: conditions within marriage, including desertion, domestic violence, adoption, neglect

and abuse of children, and divorce

Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

  • Founded by

    Annie Wittenmyer

  • November 1874 in Cleveland, Ohio

  • Organized by women who were concerned about the destructive power of alcohol and the problems it was causing their families and society

  • Based itself upon Christian moral principles, such as sobriety and abstinence (self-discipline)

  • Some called for the addition of women’s suffrage (right to vote) to the group’s platform along with abstinence from alcohol.

  • In 1879 Wittenmyer, who opposed such a move, was replaced by Francis Willard

W vs. W

Carry nation

Born 1846

Father – Plantation Owner

.Spent much time with the Bible

Carry Nation

In 1867  married a young physician, Charles Gloyd

- Heavy drinker

- Had a child (sick)

Carry attributed to her husband's drinking

Left him (drinking and inability to earn a steady living)

- he died six months later.

To survive, Carry turned to teaching and keeping rooms

In 1877, Carry married David Nation, a preacher, attorney and editor …moved to Kansas

- saw to the needs of poor people, became a jail evangelist and helped to establish a local chapter of the WCTU.

Why does she have a hatchet

Kansas residents had voted for prohibition,

BUT saloonkeepers ignored law

Carry began by praying …then rocks and bricks… turned to the hatchet

Her behavior provoked a tremendous uproar

- sent her to jail repeatedly for disorderly conduct and disturbing the peace.

She also had eloquently speaking her mind and inspiring others

Why does she have a hatchet?

Anti saloon league
Anti-Saloon League

  • Founded in 1893 in Oberlin, Ohio

  • 1895 - the League became a powerful national organization

    • Was a non-partisan organization that focused on the single issue of prohibition

As time progressed…It was no longer enough to warn individuals of the danger of alcoholism. Drink was increasingly seen as a problem of the whole society, not just a personal danger.

  • WCTU poster

  • In 1913 Anti-Saloon League announced its campaign to achieve national prohibition through a constitutional amendment.

    - Anti Saloon League allied with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union

  • 1916 - oversaw the election of the two-thirds majorities necessary in both houses of Congress to initiate what became the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States

Another cause women s suffrage movement

Began in 1848 first women’s rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York.

For the next 50 years, woman suffrage supporters worked to educate the public about the validity of woman suffrage

Another cause – Women’s Suffrage Movement

Two ladies above were the best known leaders of women's suffrage (voting rights)

Later that year, Lucy Stone,

Julia Ward Howe, and others formed the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA).

  • By 1896, women had gained the right to vote in four states (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah).

  • Women and women's organizations also worked on behalf of many social and reform issues.

  • By the beginning of the new century, women's clubs in towns and cities across the nation were working to promote suffrage, better schools, the regulation of child labor, women in unions, and liquor prohibition.

  • However (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah, not until the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919 did women throughout the nation gain the right to vote.

Fostering Efficiency (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and UtahMany Progressive leaders put their faith in scientific principles to make society better

  • In Industry:

    • Frederick Taylor began using time & motion studies to improve factory efficiency

  • Taylorism (Scientific Management) became an industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly

Fostering efficiency

In Industry (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

Fostering Efficiency

  • Frederick Taylor began using time & motion studies to improve factory efficiency

  • Taylorism (Scientific Management) became an industry fad as factories sought to complete each task quickly

  • Progressivism eugenics
    Progressivism & (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and UtahEugenics

    • Many early progressives advocated eugenics (def: human engineering), to purge society's gene pool of undesirable traits.

      • “the betterment of the human race.”

    Progressives generally shared in common the view that government at every level must be actively involved in these reforms.

    • Eugenics was (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utahcompatible with the progressive era's faith in science, the future, the regulatory potential of the state, and human perfectibility.

    • Scientific knowledge - mediator of humankind's secular [material] problems

    Eugenics would enable parents to focus their resources on fewer, better children

    Fitter families & better babies

    Going to the court
    Going to the court… (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    • By 1927, the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted the progressive belief that the state ought to be empowered to determine who should and should not be permitted to reproduce.

    • Oliver Wendell Holmes, the Court's progressive icon, wrote in 1915 that his "starting point for an ideal for the law" would be the "coordinated human effort ... to build a race."

    BUCK v. BELL (Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    • “We have seen more than once that the public welfare may call upon the best citizens for their lives. It would be strange if it could not call upon those who already sap the strength of the State for these lesser sacrifices, often not felt to be such by those concerned in order to prevent our being swamped with incompetence. It is better for all the world if, instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for the crime or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind.... Three generations of imbeciles are enough.” ~Oliver W. Holmes

    Carrie Buck

    *Judged to be “feeble-minded”


    promiscuous (slept around)


    • Last Topic… decrees of state governments

      Local, State, and Federal Government Reforms