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Introduction to groundwater resources management

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  1. Introduction to groundwaterresources management Jac A.M. van der Gun , Previously employed with Deltares/TNO Netherlands Geological Survey & International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC) - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  2. Prologue: Watershed and River Basin Management:How does groundwater fit? Some distinguishing features of groundwater: 1 Spatial units: – aquifers rather than river basins – other horizontal and verticalboundaries 2Time scales of processes are different 3 Different storage/flux ratio 4 Less open to observation 5 Different interaction with people - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  3. Jac A.M. van der Gun Introduction to groundwaterresources management 1 Introduction 2 Basic concepts and supporting subjects (shortened) 3 Water resources plan development (shortened) 4 Groundwater resources management issues 5 Implementing groundwater resources management 6 Case studies - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  4. Chapter 1: Introduction • Role of water in human society (and beyond) • Complicating factors regarding water resources • Water resources management - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  5. Water and Man • Domestic use • Irrigation • Production/cooling water • Navigation • Fishery • Source of energy • Recreation • Sewage/ wastewater disposal • Flooding/ water-logging • Environment and ecosystems Water is …...a biological need, …..an economic commodity, ….and an environmental factor - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  6. Role of groundwater - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  7. Groundwater abstraction Intensity (mm/year) 70% of global abstraction is by ten countries only Purpose of use (shares of main water use sectors) - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  8. Groundwater abstraction Ogalalla, USA Jeffara,Libya Evolution 1950-2010 (in km3/yr) Strong declines of the groundwater levels - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  9. Competitive demands in a water scarcity environment river system projected reservoir reservoir projected complex of irrigated lands town - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  10. Interdependency Traditional perception Project 1 goal 1 Project 2 goal 2 Project n goal n A more realistic perception Project 1 outcome 1 Project 2 outcome 2 Project n outcome n - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  11. Soil salinization in ancient Mesopatamia • Prosperous irrigation areas • Steadily progressing soil salinization • Reactions: • - moving to new lands • - fallow-land rotation • - from wheat to barley • Results: • - general decline • - diminishing crop yields • - abandoned agricultural lands - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  12. Volumes of water: R I ET rainfall irrigation evapotransp. Salt concentrations: cr ci ce Control volume of soil: (undrained) cc capillary flow C Mechanism of soil salination Soil salt quantity S Mean annual soil water balance: R + I + C - ET = 0 Mean annual soil salt balance: Rcr + Ici +C cc - ETce = ΔS Because ce < cr , ci,,, cc it follows: ΔS > 0 - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  13. It took long before the hydrological cycle was correctly understood Theories on the origin of groundwater and springs Homeros Thales of Milete Plinius the Elder Leonardo da Vinci Johann Kepler Aristotle Seneca RenéDescartes Oceanus theory Condensation theory Percolation theory Vitruvius Bernard Palissy Pierre Perrault Edmund Halley Edmé Mariotte Athanasius Kircher, 1665 - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  14. Global population growth1900 - 2000 - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  15. Changing water demands per capita • Increasing wealth: • - affordability of buying water • - willingness to pay for water • Motivators for more water per capita: • - improvement of hygiene and health • - improved & controlled food production • steadily developing water using industry • - comfort, recreation and leasure • Enabling technological development: • - knowledge on water resources • - water development technology • - water use technical infrastructure - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  16. Evolution in groundwater resources development technology Noria (saqiyah) - Introduction to groundwater resources management - shaduf

  17. Climate change Source: IPCC, 2001 - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  18. Complicating factors regarding water resources - Conflicts of interest - Interdependency of activities - Poor perception of reality / lack of data - Water is a common property resource - Water is a vulnerable resource - The world is continuously changing(local & global change) Consequently…… there is often a need for intervention - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  19. Water resources management: intervention objectives Conserve and control water resources + related ecosystems and environment Provide water and maintain water functions according to requirements Maximize total benefits from the resource and allocate them optimally Minimize costs involved in water sector - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  20. Typical evolution in water sector activities Time reconnaissance water resources development water resources management increasing population industrialisation higher consumption levels awareness of interdependencies - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  21. Groundwater resources management (GWRM) defined: “A planned and ongoing activity to optimize the exploitation and use of regional or national groundwater resources……... ……. taking into account the sustainability of the groundwater resources and the groundwater related environment and ecosystems.” - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  22. Groundwater resources management in a nutshell Problems? Opportunities? Other policy fields Monitoring Groundwater Planning Implementation Plan approval and acceptance - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  23. Chapter 2:Basic concepts and supporting subjects • Systems approach • Groundwater systems • Water demands • Economics - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  24. Systems approach “real world” system 1 water resources system “systems” and interrelations system n - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  25. System operation (1) Nature of system System operation Physical laws System - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  26. System operation (2) System operation Output Input System - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  27. System operation (3) Nature of system System operation Output Input System Physical laws System - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  28. The hydrological cycleas a system atmosphere vegetation land surface surface water soil groundwater oceans deep lithosphere - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  29. Systems approach to water resources management Socio-economic system Present state, functions, performance, etc. Desired state, functions, performance, etc. Physical water system Decision variables State at time t System operation State at time t + Δt Uncontrollable variables - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  30. Some aspectsof groundwater systems • Invisible resource • Ratio storage/flux is large (mean residence times between 10 and 1,000 yrs are common) • Common pool & open access resource • Many functions • Schematization - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  31. Functions of groundwater systems More than a source of water only ….. • “sustained yield” reservoir • “mining” reservoir • reservoir for artificial recharge • conduit for water transmission • energy absorber (pumping) • source of energy (geothermal energy) • reservoir for seasonal heat storage • water quality modifyer • control of base flow and springs • water supply to phreatophytes/wetlands • control of land subsidence - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  32. Groundwater in a “lumped system” schematization Direct recharge Diffuse discharge Recharge from streams, lakes, etc. Spring flow & discharge to streams, lakes, etc. Artificial recharge Abstraction Subsurface inflow Subsurface outflow Groundwater system (stored volume, water quality, average head, etc.) - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  33. Distributed groundwater systems (1) hydraulic schematization aquifer aquitard Aquitard/aquiclude (2) flow systems schematization - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  34. Water demands • Quantity: • Domestic: total and per capita demands • Irrigation: irrigation requirements, leaching requirements • Industry: process water, cooling water demands • Environment • /nature: desired/ minimum/ maximum groundwater level • Quality: • Standards for drinking water quality • Idem for irrigation, industry, environment, nature • Aspects: chemical, bacteriological, physical (incl. sediments) It is important to know what impacts violating any of the requirements or standards will have - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  35. Role of economics in water resources management • Comparing economic merits (scores)of alternatives or strategies • Defining economic optima: Maxx Profit = (ΣR-ΣC) • Understanding or predicting people’s behaviour - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  36. Conventional economic theory ignores market failures • Missing markets • Poorly defined ownership or user rights • External benefits • External costs (disbenefits) • Unequitable allocation of benefits/costs • Lack of intergenerational equity • Environmental and sustainability problems Market failures are triggers for government interventions - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  37. Natural resources • Characterised by “stock”(reserves) and “flow”(quantities transfered per unit of time) Examples: solar energy • Important distinction: • - perennial resources • - renewable resources • - exhaustible or mining • resources water, fish, forests, etc oil and gas, mineral ores - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  38. Optimal exploitation of natural resources Dilemma: Exploit ‘stock’ - or exploit ‘flow’ - or both? • Different views, criteria and priorities: • e.g.: • Presence/absence of substituting resources • Economic optimization • Sustainable development • Poverty alleviation • Protection of ecosystems • Self-supporting food production - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  39. Economically optimal exploitation of natural resources Dilemma: Exploit ‘stock’ - or exploit ‘flow’ - or both? Economic optimization: Given : S = stock of natural resource b = input of natural resource a = input of other production factors G = growth function of natural resource V = value of discounted profits π = profit function Then the optimum follows from: subject to: - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  40. Set of equations for natural resources management (1) “Maximum Principle” (2) Portfolio balance equation (3) Dynamic constraint Production output oriented Resources use oriented Continuity equation Note: x is envisaged production output - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  41. Jac A.M. van der Gun Introduction to groundwaterresources management 1 Introduction 2 Basic concepts and supporting subjects 3 Water resources plan development 4 Groundwater resources management issues 5 Implementing groundwater resources management 6 Case studies - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  42. Chapter 3: Water resources policy and plan development • Basic aspects • Outline and elements of water resources management planning • Models used for groundwater resources management planning • ‘Open’ or ‘interactive’ plan development - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  43. Difference between policies and plans • Apolicyencompasses in general terms the objectives, priorities and the line of actions opted for • Aplantranslates this policy into action, it facilitates communication on it among stake-holders and it enables the results to be monitored - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  44. What is planning? “Planning is the process that converts data and information into a decision” O. Helweg, 1985 Planning is commonly a cyclic process: the plan is intended to cover a limited period of time (planning period) and needs to be updated periodically Before starting planning: consensus needed on jurisdiction, scope, stage (hierarchical level) and on the roles of partners in the planning process - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  45. Hierarchical levels in water resources management GENERAL POLICIES development scenarios objectives constraints preferences general directives AREA-SPECIFIC STRATEGIC PLANNING area-specific WRM plan feed-back IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING feed-back feed-back - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  46. Potential main partners in planning Target group Decision makers Technical specialists - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  47. Framework for WRM planning WATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT Water resources, demands, scenario conditions, issues, etc. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS Objectives, options, strategies, measures, evaluation VIABILITY ANALYSIS Feasibility and expected acceptance PLAN APPROVAL - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  48. Water resources management objectives and criteria(examples) • Economic efficiency B-C, NPV • Equity water allocation income from water • Sustainability stock, water levels, water quality • Safety no. of victims, damage - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  49. Decision space and feasibility Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Environmental feasibility Financial feasibility Legal feasibility Political feasibility - Introduction to groundwater resources management -

  50. Main types of models in WRM planning • Simulation models • Optimization models • Decision rules • Evaluation models - Introduction to groundwater resources management -