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Egyptian Civilization. Brooke, Madison, Genesis, Elysa. Social Structure. Merchants Fifth on social structure Lower than Craftsmen because they only sold , not handmade there merchandise Sold goods from over seas -Artisans - Traders Farmers Sixth on the social structure

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Egyptian civilization

Egyptian Civilization

Brooke, Madison, Genesis, Elysa

Social structure
Social Structure

  • Merchants

  • Fifth on social structure

  • Lower than Craftsmen because they only sold , not handmade there merchandise

  • Sold goods from over seas


    - Traders


  • Sixth on the social structure

  • Part of the lower class

  • Tended the animals

  • Also took care or the irrigation canals

  • Responsible for building the royal monuments

  • Gave 60% of there yearly harvest as taxes

Social structure1
Social Structure

  • Slaves/Servants

  • Usually those captured as prisoners of war

  • Forced to build projects

  • Toiled (worked) at the discretion of the pharaoh or nobles

  • Soldiers

  • Third on the social structure

  • Fought wars or controlled domestic uprisings

  • Supervise the lower class (farmers, slaves , and peasants) that were involved in building

  • Craftsman

  • Fourth on social structure

  • Made up part of the middle class

  • Provided/Made useful tools

  • -pottery

  • - items from papyrus

Political rulers

  • They were seen as gods, therefore had control over everything (military, conflict, and taxes)

  • Assigned a supervisor which is called a vizier

  • Viziers social status was the same as a noble/priest because they ensured that taxes were collected for the pharoah

  • They were second in the social structure

  • Nobles were assigned to hold govt. post profits

  • Govt. post profits were tributes paid to the pharaoh

  • Priests gained wealth through donations to the gods

Religion faith

  • Polytheistic-Polytheism is the worship or belief in multiple deities

  • over 2000 gods and goddess.

  • Ra was the sun god of Ancient Egypt. He was also described as the creator of everything.

  • Amun-At the height of Egyptian civilization he was called the 'King of the Gods‘.

  • Horus-He is probably most well-known as the protector of the ruler of Egypt. Most of the Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was the 'living Horus'.

  • Thoth-was the god of writing and knowledge. The ancient Egyptians believed that Thoth gave them the gift of hieroglyphic writing.


  • Egyptians used simply tools

  • Some of the tools were drove hammers and mallets to chisel.

  • Trowels was helped to smooth out the blocks. Egypt is know for the great limestone which was used on the pyramids.

  • Sundials

Economy trade

  • Most of their money was from trading

  • livestock were traded

  • Traded minerals for food

  • Traded gold and wheat

  • Thriving economy

  • Neighboring countries

  • Palestine and Syria

Writing system
Writing System

  • The Hieroglyphics went through eight primary stages

  • Early Dynastic Period : 3000bc – 2600bc

  • Old Kingdom : 2600bc – 2200bc

  • First Intermediate Period : 2200bc – 1940bc

  • Middle Kingdom 1940bc – 1760bc

  • Second Intermediate Period : 1760bc – 1500bc

  • New Kingdom : 1500bc – 1000bc

  • Third Intermediate Period : 1000bc – 650bc

  • Late Period : 650bc – 343bc

  • From the beginning to the end there were thousands of different symbols used

  • Each picture used in Hieroglyphics has an association that extends past its meaning

    Ex. A seated man could indicate not only a man but also myself

City structure architecture
City Structure/Architecture

Old Kingdom

  • 1300-2181 BCE

  • Time period of the beginning of pyramid building

  • Architects and Masons

  • Mastered techniques too build monumental stone structures

  • Example: Pyramid or Djor

  • Pharaoh who ruled in that time period

  • Imhotep who was a high priest, designed 6-step outlook

  • Famous for his architectural work

Middle kingdom
Middle Kingdom

  • 2055-1650

  • Reunified upper and lower Egypt

  • Example of Egyptian Architecture is The Montuhotep’s Montuary

  • It was constructed against sheer cliffs of western Thebes

  • Central feature was a terraced temple with pillared porticoes

  • Used as royal tomb and centre for worship

New kingdom
New Kingdom

  • 1550-1065 BCE

  • Time of Egyptian temples

  • Mostly built for gods

  • 2 types of sanctuaries

    -Mortuary: west bank

    -Temples: east bank, for living gods

  • Temples where accompanied by great structures leading to them ( Example: sphinxes)

Law codes legal system
Law Codes/Legal System

  • Most legal codes did not survive

  • Cases judged by officials

  • Laws were based on common sense

  • Most were oral laws

  • Ma’at concept

  • Small cases ruled by Kenbet

  • Serious cases by Great Kenbet

General geography
General Geography

  • Mostly desert

  • Borders the Mediterranean and Red Sea

  • Sahara, Libyan, Arabian, and Nubian Desert

    Upper and Lower Egypt

  • Lower Egypt is located in the north

  • Nile Delta flows into the Mediterranean Sea

  • Upper Egypt is located in the south

    Nile River Valley

  • Nile River Valley located in eastern Egypt

  • 6,650 Kilometers long

  • Fertile land do to flooding

  • The flooding land created silt

  • Crops

Role of women
Role of Women

  • The Egyptian women were treated better than any other ancient women in the world.

  • In the eyes of the law men and women were equal.

  • Women could

    -run a business

    -own, buy, and sell property

    -make their own will and leave

    personal goods to whomever

    Including their daughters


  • Infantry- mostly voluntary

  • Worked for pay

  • Navy-elite middle class

  • Highly sophisticated

  • Upper classes

  • Had sticks, spears, bow and arrows, and slings

  • The Chariot

  • two-wheeled war mobile

  • carrying an driver and a archer

  • Egyptians only knew two types of chariots war chariots and carriage chariots.

  • Originated from Mesopotamia


  • Where are upper and lower Egypt?

  • Name two things women could do.

  • Where were farmers on the social structure?

  • When was the middle kingdom?

  • In the legend in Hathor what was she called?

  • True/False: women were treated equal in the eyes of the law.

  • Which god was the god of knowledge and writing?

  • True/False: the Egyptian believed that the pharaoh was the “living Horus”.

  • How did the priests gain wealth?

  • What was Thoth the god of?

Work cited
Work Cited

  • Briney, Amanda. "Geography of Egypt." N.p., 20 Feb 2011. Web. 11 Jan 2013.< egyptmaps/a/egypt- geography.htm>.

  • Canadian Museum of Civilizations, . "Egyptian Civilization."Mysteries of Egypt. (1998): n. page. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. < egcgeo3e.shtml >.

  • University College London, . "Law in Ancient Egypt."Digital Egypt for Universities. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2013. < tml >.

  • Dunn, Jimmy. "Law and the Legal System of Ancient Egypt." Egypt: Law and the Legal System in Ancient Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2013. <>.

  • Development in the Ancient World. Phone pyae, 2013. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. < y>.

  • Ancient Egypt. Robert Guisepi, 2004. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. <>.

  • The Egyptian Language. Wim van den Dungen, 2003. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. <>.

  • An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt. Arachnophilia, 2000. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. < index.html>.

  • Shira. "The Goddesses of Ancient Egypt." The Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. John Rickman, San Jose, California, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2013.

  • Di Paolo, Anthony C. "Ancient Egyptian Religions -- Courtesy of Return To Glory..." Ancient Egyptian Religions -- Courtesy of Return To Glory... N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. <>.

  • Martin, Phillip. "Women - Ancient Egypt for Kids." Women - Ancient Egypt for Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. <>.