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Weight management. Biochemistry and Nutrition NURS 1117. Objectives. At the end of this presentation students will be able to: Define weight management Describes concepts related to weight management Describe relationships between energy and obesity

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Weight management

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    1. Weight management Biochemistry and Nutrition NURS 1117

    2. Objectives • At the end of this presentation students will be able to: • Define weight management • Describes concepts related to weight management • Describe relationships between energy and obesity • Synthesize appropriate weight management protocols

    3. Prevalence • In developed countries, 20% of men are obese and the level is a few points higher in women • Overweight is more common in the population than obesity. 62% of males and 50% of females are overweight in developed countries. • Patterson & Pietinen, 2004

    4. Energy and Weight Mgt. • Energy needs= BMR+ DIT + PA • BMR- Basal Metabolic Requirement • DIT- Diet Induced Thermogenesis • PA- physical Activity • Energy is also needed for new tissue growth e.g. in pregnancy and to recovery from illness

    5. Energy and Weight Mgt. • BMR- energy needed at rest to sustain basic life functions (= 70% of energy needs) • DIT- energy needed to absorb, digest, transport & interconvert nutrients (=10% of intake) • PA- energy expenditure caused by movement; conscious and unconscious

    6. Energy and Weight Mgt. • Modulators of BMR- (BMR is affected by) • Age, gender, body habitus • Modulators of DIT (DIT is affected by) • Size and quantity of food- high protein meals causes higher DIT than fat or carbohydrate dieys

    7. Hormones Influencing energy use and storage • Leptin- regulates appetite • (Leptin levels are increased in obese individuals) • Adiponectin- regulates appetite • (inversely related to adipose tissue mass) • Other hormones that affect energy storage • TNF α- Tissue Necrosis Factor Alpha • IL6- Interleukin 6 • PAI- Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor

    8. Terms related to energy • GE (Gross Energy)- all the energy from food if it were burnt in oxygen • DE (digestible energy)- portion of GE that is actually absorbed across the GI tract. NB- portion of GE is always lost in faeces e.g.. Component of fibre, grains and nuts • ME (metabolisable energy)- actual energy available for metabolism or portion of DE excluding energy lost in urine

    9. Weight Management Steps • A balance of the three macronutrients: carbs, fat, and protein • Consume a rich spectrum of micronutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants • Intake good sources of bulking fiber

    10. Weight Management Steps • Choose slow-releasing- low glycaemic index food, so as not to spike blood sugar • non-processed, whole foods • Reduce snacking • Exercise • Reduce- discontinue smoking

    11. To lose weight • Eat less, reduce portions of all foods especially foods containing oils & fats • Avoid sweetened beverages, less alcohol, more water • Be physically active • Exercise daily & make exercise a part of your lifestyle

    12. To lose weight • Change some old habits which prompted you to eat e.g. eating & watching TV • Set yourself a goal for losing weight • Do not try to lose too much weight too soon. Go slowly, lose a little at a time & keep it off

    13. To lose weight • Adopt healthy diet & exercise habits • Keep a record of what you eat & the exercises you do • Do not skip meals, especially breakfast

    14. Factors that protect against weight gain • High intake of non-starch polysaccharides- (supported by strongest research evidence) • Breast feeding • Intake of low glycaemic index foods • Increased eating frequency • Regular physical activity

    15. Consequences of obesity

    16. References • Patterson, R. E. & Pietinen, P. (2004). Assessment of Nutritional status in individuals and populations. In M. Gibney, B. Margetts, J. Kearney & L. Arab. Public Health Nutrition. (pp. 66-82). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Company. • Prentice, A. (2007). Energy. In J. Mann & S. Truswell. Essentials of Human Nutrition. (3rd Ed.). (pp. 73-88). Oxford: University Press.

    17. References • Omari, A. & Caterson, D. (2007). Overweight & Obesity. In J. Mann & S. Truswell. Essentials of Human Nutrition. (3rd Ed.). (pp. 233-248). Oxford: University Press. • Tucker, S. & Dauffenbach, V. (2011). Nutrition and Diet Therapy for Nurses’. (1st Ed.). Boston: Pearson Press