Multifactorial Traits. Chapter Seven. Multifactorial. Not all diseases are Mendelian Multifactorial = many factors In Genetics: Multifactorial = both environment and genetics (usually more than one gene ) Polygenic = more than one gene
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rational fear vs. anxiety disorders
Autistic or normal?
“speaking ability is stuck at 2 years of age”
Rather than genes people often talk about:
Remember – More than one gene!
therefore – more than one QTL too
# of relatives that share the trait
# expected to share if trait was 100% genetic
Differs based on ethnic background:
Also depending on whether relative has trait:
- Marker and phenotype are correlated
- Animal can be manipulated to show phenotype
- Compare differences in genetics, matched to differences in phenotypes
- Are certain alleles correlated with phenotype?
“Linkage Disequilibrium” – alleles are inherited together (rather than genes)
Association studies are now often done in:
This is assuming
# Individuals Needed
1 2 3 4 5
# Genes Causing Trait
QTL = regions associated with phenotype:
Empiric Risk – known incidence of trait in particular population
Heritability – estimate of percentage of trait that is caused by genetics
Correlation Coefficient – proportion of genes two relatives share
Concordance – Percentage of twin pairs that both show phenotype