Jill Grogg, University of Alabama: Negotiation 101 Sara Morris, University of Kansas: Doing Your Homework Beth Ashmore, Samford University: Factors that Affect Your Ability to Negotiate GATEWAY TO GOOD NEGOTIATION
Part I NEGOTIATION 101
Two basic premises • Negotiation is a given • Negotiation can be scary
Communication • Understanding communication means understanding negotiation • Determine what kind of communication • Analyze and interpret noise • Apply feedback loop
Listen to the experts • Doing your homework • Options for mutual gain • W.H.A.T.
The experts have more to say! • Best Alternative to a Negotiation Agreement, or BATNA • Wanted: Leverage • Tricks are for kids
Modern day samurai Ordered flexibility “It embodies preparation, observation, poise, timing, and readiness to act. That is, in this position, the warrior is prepared to do whatever is necessary given the actual situation. He is grounded in the reality of the moment, observant and poised. Yet, he can easily respond to changing circumstances. He does not make up his mind to act until the appropriate time; but, when he does act, he moves decisively.”
It’s not personal It’s just business.
Women & Negotiation Situational triggers: • Ambiguous situations • Negotiating for others • When competition is high
Part II DOING YOUR HOMEWORK
Negotiating Isn’t New to Librarians • Reference Interview • Collection Development • Computers, Libraries, & Negotiating The increasing use of automation in libraries has made many librarians painfully aware of the difficulty of negotiating for computer products and services. This is true for a wide range of situations, such as acquiring a turnkey system, joining a network, subscribing to an information retrieval service and many others. While negotiation should be a give-and-take process between parties on an equal footing, librarians often see themselves as being at a disadvantage. The product or service is technically complex, the legal instruments are mysterious, and the other party has greater experience with the technology, the law and the art of negotiating. The purpose of the 1977 clinic was to enable librarians to be stronger, more knowledgeable negotiators.
Do Your Homework or Competitive Intelligence • Know the other party • Previous deals • State of the industry/market • Research • Company/Industry information • What is their position in the industry? • With whom will you be negotiating? • What is the product line? • Professional literature • Listservs, blogs, professional contacts • Alternatives
Do Your Homework • Know Your Organization • What is the objective? • Who can help? • Know Thyself
Part III FACTORS THAT AFFECT YOUR ABILITY TO NEGOTIATE
Consortia Advantages Disadvantages Size or makeup of a consortia could outweigh benefits Decreased budget flexibility/ Other institutions can be affected by your budget decisions Complex communication/regulatory structure Equitable cost distribution models • Guaranteed price break/better license terms • Centralized communication, negotiation, billing and administration • Easier to walk away from a bad deal • Benefits both sides • Publisher gets greater market share with a single deal • More users get more content
Economic Downturn Advantages Disadvantages Less money often means fewer resources anyway you slice it Cooperative purchasing becomes particularly thorny with each library having their unique budget cuts and collection needs • Excuse to re-negotiate • Claims of poverty are always more convincing when you actually are poor • Opportunity to shed dead weight & sacred cows in the name of tight budgets • New pricing models for access and acquisition
Publisher Consolidation & The Big Deal Advantages Disadvantages Decreases budget flexibility Restricts deliberate collection development Unsustainable for libraries (and maybe publishers too?) Anti-trust issues Current library practices can make users price insensitive • Some research suggests a low cost per use • More titles • Fewer platforms • Can increase consortial power
Open Access Advantages Disadvantages Increased choices Points of negotiations Development and Maintenance Stability and Support Implementation Marketing Assessment • Increased competition • No price negotiation • Increased innovation
Technology Advantages Disadvantages Email can slow down short conversations Netiquette/Misreading Document security in the cloud ERMS still requires data input to be effective • Ability to craft messages via chat and email • Face to face without the travel • Speedy file sharing and digital markup • Better information management with ERMS • More informed negotiation between buyers and sellers / buyers and buyers
Ashmore & Grogg. “The Art of Negotiation” (three-article series), 2009, Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals • Ronald Shapiro & Mark Jankowski. The Power of Nice • Roger Fisher & William Ury. Getting to Yes • Richard Shell. Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People • Donald Krause. The Book of Five Rings for Executives
Questions? • Jill Grogg, firstname.lastname@example.org • Beth Ashmore, email@example.com • Sara Morris, firstname.lastname@example.org