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## Whose Mathematics? Whose Curriculum?

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**Whose Mathematics?Whose Curriculum?**Morwenna Griffiths, Sheila Hamilton & Tom Macintyre University of Edinburgh**Curricular focus**Exploratory study to investigate possible factors related to participation levels and success rates within mathematical studies –patterns of inclusion or exclusion?**Scottish context**Guidelines and Arrangements • A Curriculum Framework for Children 3-5 • Mathematics 5-14 Guidelines • Standard Grade Arrangements (14-16) • National Qualification Arrangements (14-18) Curriculum review • A Curriculum for Excellence (ACE) • 3-18 Curriculum … beyond subjects**Whose mathematics?**Functional mathematics? Abstract mathematics? Text book mathematics?**Whose Curriculum?**Text books as an interpretation of the curriculum Framing the curriculum (Bernstein) Cross-curricular responsibility for Numeracy within GTCS’ Standards: 1.1.2 Registered teachers have sufficient knowledge and understanding to fulfil their responsibilities in respect of literacy and numeracy**‘Suspend your belief in the innocence of words and the**transparency of language as a window on an objectively graspable reality.’ Maggie Maclure (2003) Discourse in Educational and Social Research, Open University Press.**Content analysis – a more linguistic approach**Deconstruction – a more discursive approach**A provisional and constructive epistemology… using two**methods, each in conversation with the other.**1: An analysis of text books**Are learners able to see self or their interests represented within the text book?**2: Interviews with teacher educators**2.1 How do a range of curriculum specialists in secondary teacher education perceive mathematics and people who can do maths? 2.2 How do they see the overlap of their subject with the mathematics curriculum?**Analysis of textbooks**Am I represented? Are my interests represented? Broad political categories: gender, race, social class, sexuality (LGBT), special needs Other self-identifications related to inclusion or exclusion: cool, nerdy, logical, expressive, creative, clever**Pilot study with Scottish publications for years 10-12**Nelson Blackie (Blackie-Chambers) Mathematics in Action 3B & 4B TeeJay Publishers General Maths 3G & 4G Int-2-Credit Mathematics Book 1 & Book 2**Presentation & style**• Text • Spacing & style • Colour/ B&W • Language • Images • Cartoon characters • Clip Art • Photographs of real people/ artefacts**Gender**Do they favour boys rather than girls? How stereotypical? Is the textbook gender neutral? Are there appropriate male and female role models? What careers/ occupations are represented?**Other identity criteria**• Ethnicity • Disability • Sexual orientation • Social class**Questions for further discussion**• What do the two textbooks say about appealing to young people in general across ability ranges? • Would ‘creative’ and ‘expressive’ people prefer coloured fonts and better layout? • Does clip art imagery detract the gifted and talented from the job in hand and is it viewed as tokenistic? • What part do textbooks play in overall experience of studying mathematics and ‘framing’ of the curriculum?**ART**Money. Pure algebra, Pure number. Basic geometric shapes, squares, triangles Space, position and movement Space, time, Tessellations, Repeating patterns; half drop repeats, Weighing and working out the proportions Measurement, Shape and proportions**TECHNOLOGY**Numbers Numerical problem solving Millimetres, centimetres Scale, dimension, form, Co-ordinates. Three dimensional co-ordinates Cycles, time Simultaneous equations Algebra Boolean algebra equations Geometry, Pythagoras, Load extensions, graphs Resolving forces, force networks Nets**PEOPLE WHO CAN DO MATHS/MATHEMATICIANS –**ART Logical. Logical thinkers, perhaps absolutist. TECHNOLOGY Me because I have an engineering background people who want to understand more about the world around them. [There is] mathematics for thinkers and mathematics for doers. Vocational maths I suppose would be engineering.**Questions**• Should maths textbooks make the links with other areas of the curriculum as well as with the so-called real world? • Is the emphasis on functionality missing the point? Neither art nor English are functional – but they are popular subjects.