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Overview of Curriculum, Curriculum Materials, and Instruction. “ Haaaaalllllp ! I make mistake. No can fly!”. Main Ideas. 1. A curriculum is all of the information , skills, or knowledge that students are to learn, and the sequence in which they are to learn it.

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Overview of Curriculum, Curriculum Materials, and Instruction


I make mistake. No can fly!”

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Main Ideas

1. A curriculum is all of the information, skills, or knowledge that students are to learn, and the sequence in which they are to learn it.

Scope and sequence charts show what is taught and when.

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Scope and Sequence (What and When) Chart for a Beginning Reading Curriculum

Lessons 1  100

Hear sounds in words (phonemic awareness)


Sounds that go with letters (letter-sound correspondence: alphabetic principle)


Decoding (sounding out unfamiliar words: alphabetic principle)


Fluency (reading letters, words, sentences, paragraphs fast and accurately)




Text Comprehension


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2. It’s important that a curriculum includes the essential and important information.


3. It’s important that the sequence is logical. For example, you should

  • Teach pre-skills, elements, or basics first (e.g., in beginning reading and math).

  • Tell a story or develop a big picture (e.g., in history)

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  • Instruction and important (communication) is a main way you “deliver” information in the curriculum.

  • Most instruction (communication) will come from curriculum/instructional materials.

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6. Materials include books, internet documents, CDs, DVDs, Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge.

  • Two kinds of materials.

  • Some materials are programs---for teaching tool skills, such as beginning reading, math, language, spelling, logic.

  • Other materials are resource materials (e.g., textbooks and internet documents) for teaching content or subject matter, such as history and science.

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8. Scaffolding Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge. is anything added to information (in demonstrations, lectures, and materials) that makes it easier to communicate and learn.

read The little letters tell kids not to say them.

42 First multiply the numbers in the ones

X15 column. [Point and say.] Numbers in the ones column are in blue. What numbers are in the ones column? 2 and 5.Yes, 2 and 5 are the numbers in the ones column. So, what numbers are we going to multiply first? 2 and 5.Yes, 2 and 5. Go!

[How many times did we test/check whether students got it?]

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9. Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge.Scaffolding includes: outlines, extra cues (e.g., to highlight information), guided notes, diagrams, summaries, explicit instructions for the teacher on how to deliver the information (maybe even scripts), a logical progression of information to teach, “big ideas” that help students make sense and organize information, and glossaries.

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10. Programs tend to have more scaffolding Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge. than resource materials, such as textbooks and internet documents. This means that you have to add scaffolding to these resource materials. [You better, you bet!]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ir2rFb_ghn0

However, programs need more scaffolding, too. There’s always something you can add to make communication clearer.

Any questions?

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11. There are only Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge.six kinds of information, skills, or knowledge that can be communicated and learned:

Facts. The first ten amendments are called “The Bill of Rights.”

Lists. The ten lost tribes of Israel are…

Sensory concepts. blue, on

Higher-order concepts. Color, society, mammal

Rules. If X increases, then Y increases. All dogs are canines.

Routines. Sequences of steps

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12. Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge. There is a procedure for teaching each of the six kinds of knowledge. The procedure is the same regardless of the content.

However, each procedure is a simple variation of a general procedure for teaching.

**Gain attention.

**Frame instruction---say what you’ll be teaching.

**Present information with the first example (model).

**Have students do it with you (lead).

**Check to see if they got it (immediate acquisition test/check).

**Use model, lead, test with more examples and nonexamples (for contrast).

**Test/check with all examples and nonexamples (delayed acquisition test)

**Correct all errors and retest.

Variations of this general procedure are: (1) how many examples and nonexamples are used (for concepts and rules); and (2) whether you teach a sequence of steps (routine) or items (list).

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13. There are Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge.five phases of mastery of information, skills, or knowledge:

(1) acquisition of new knowledge.

(2) generalization of knowledge to new examples.

(3) fluent use of knowledge (fast, accurate);

(4) integration of knowledge elements into complex wholes---such as solutions, descriptions, explanations; and

(5) retention of knowledge.

There are simpleprocedures for teaching each phase.

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14. Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge.It’s wise to use materials that are highly scaffolded---and that even have scripts. These materials are likely to have been thoroughly field tested.

They will also save you countless hours trying to add the scaffolding yourself.

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15. But many “educators” tell you Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge.NOT to use highly scaffolded materials.

“Be creative,” they say.

“Make up your materials yourself,” they say.

These persons are WRONG.

[Did you write the software for your computer?]

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15. Materials vary in quality. “Duuuuheeee.”

  • Stinky. Don’t use.

  • Pretty good.

  • Excellent.

    There are criteria for evaluating materials and decided how good they are and exactly how to improve them.

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16. “Duuuuheeee.” If you use pretty good or excellent materials, you still have to add some scaffolding and maybe content, such as supplementary information to fill gaps, outlines, vocabulary, guided notes, and more work on fluency and retention.

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17. “Duuuuheeee.” If you teach from textbooks and internet documents,you have to design the instruction, because you can’t teach all of the information in these materials, and the information may need to be presented in a more logical sequence.

Now let’s expand these points.

But first, do you know what MisterBunneh said?......

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Most of the time you’ll be teaching from “Duuuuheeee.”materials---books, CDs, and internet.

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Some materials will be “Duuuuheeee.”programs---usually for teaching basic skills, or

“tool skills” (skills used for learning other skills).

Tool skills include reading, spelling, math, language, reasoning, writing.

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Other materials are “Duuuuheeee.”resource materials---such as textbooks and internet documents---usually in “content areas” such as literature, biology, and history.

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Scaffolding “Duuuuheeee.” is anything added to information that makes it easier for students to learn (e.g., by making communication clear) and that makes it easier for teachers to communicate (e.g., providing teachers with procedures for teaching).

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Scaffolding can be added to materials, demonstrations, and explanations.

For instance, you can insert an outline, definitions of new concepts, and review relevant background information before you introduce a unit on the Civil War.

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Programs explanations.aremore scaffolded than textbooks.

They have stated objectives; a logical progression of skills (they teach pre-skills, or basics, first); ways to assess student learning; ways to correct errors; explicit instructions to the teacher on how to teach new skills and how to build fluency and generalization and retention; maybe even scripts to help the teacher communicate information clearly.

Here are examples.


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Resource materials---such as textbooks---are explanations.less scaffolded.

They may introduce new vocabulary words and summarize each section, but they are mostly a collection of facts and concepts. They don’t tell you what to teach, how to teach, or how to tell if students are learning.

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If you could find a explanations.program or a textbook---for instance in math, reading, science or history---that had a lot of scaffolding, would it be smart to use it?

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Sure, go ahead and try. explanations.

With ONE course in instructional design, I’m sure you’ll do a GREAT job right out of ed school.

Use all of your evenings and weekends designing lessons. [You’ll be on Paxil in a week.]

Test your lessons on students. It’s okay if the lessons are not effective. Just redesign them and try again and again and again. Waste a whole year!

This is soooo much smarter than using materials prepared by experts, who do nothing else and who test and improve the materials for years before making them available.

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Whatever the subject matter is (math, literature); and whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook---it all boils down to words and pictures that contain information---knowledge---that you want to communicate to students.

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What whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook---kinds of information, or knowledge, are there in materials, and that can be communicated and learned?

I’ll tell you.

But first, Shorty McHairface has a question…

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There are only SIX kinds of information or knowledge. whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook---

  • Facts. Boston is the capital of Massachusetts.

    How to teach.

    State the fact (model). [Students write it down?] Then have students say the fact with you (lead). Then have students state the fact by themselves (test/check).

    2. Lists. The six New England states are Maine…

    How to teach.

    Model the first several on list. Then students say with you. Then test. Add more (model, lead, test). Then do all (model, lead, test).

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  • Basic or sensory concepts. whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook---One example shows all of the defining features. red, straight line, on top.

    How to teach.

    ** Present/model a range of examples that differ in size, shape, etc., but are the same in the defining feature (e.g., color)—to allow comparison, to identify sameness. “This is red.”

    ** Juxtapose examples and nonexamples that are the same except for the defining feature---to show contrast, to identify difference that makes the difference.

    ** Test with all examples and nonexamples (delayed acquisition test). “Is this red?...Is this red?”

    ** Test with new examples (generalization test).

    “red” “red” “not red” “red” “not red” “red”

    juxtaposition juxtaposition

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4. whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook--- Higher-order concepts. Features are spread out. Can’t be sensed all at once.

Representative democracy, cell mitosis, table, galaxy.

How to teach.

** Teach the definition: model, lead, test/check. “Mitosis is….”

** Then present examples and nonexamples, as with sensory concepts.

** Test all (delayed acquisition test). “Is this…?” “How do you know?”

** Generalize to new examples and nonexamples.

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5. whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook--- Rules. Statements that connect NOT one thing and another thing (e.g., name and date), but connect whole sets of things (concepts).

“When demand increases, price increases.”

price “All dogs have four legs.”




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Teach rules one of two ways. whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook---

a. Deductive method---from general (rule) to specific (examples).

** Teach rule statement (model, lead, test) first.

** Then present examples and nonexamples---as with concepts.

** Then test all examples and nonexamples.

“Is this an example of the demand-price rule?”




“How do you know?”

Students state rule.

** Then generalize to/test new examples and nonexamples.

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b. Inductive method---from specific (examples) to general (rule).

** Present a range of examples first (e.g., different price-demand curves): cars, oil, movies.



** Show students how to compare the examples and to identify the sameness—the relationship. One variable goes up and the other variable goes up. “Price varies directly with demand.”

** Then present nonexamples, and show (in relation to the rule) how they are nonexamples. “Demand is increasing, but price stays the same. That does NOT fit the rule.

** Then give new examples and nonexamples, and have students say if they are or are not examples, and how they know.

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The deductive method is easier. (rule). Students merely have to SEE how examples fit the rule and nonexamples do not. In the inductive method, students have to figure out the rule by comparing examples (to see the sameness) and contrasting with nonexamples (to see the difference). Use induction AFTER you teach a ROUTINE for comparing and contrasting and figuring out sameness and difference.

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6. (rule).Routines.A sequence of steps for getting something done.

Solving math problems, sounding out words, writing essays, brushing your teeth, brushing someone else’s teeth.

How to teach.

Teach the same way you teach lists.

Model, lead, test each step (or a few steps); add a few more steps and then do the whole sequence so far (model, lead, test); add a few more; etc.

Kitteh tells you all about it…

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Materials (rule).(programs) and resource materials (such as textbooks) differ in how much scaffolding is in them.Scaffolding includes:

1. Stated objectives for each section.

2. Teach information/knowledge in a logical progression.

Teach pre-skills/parts before teaching larger chunks that require the pre-skills.

say sounds  hear sounds in words  letters that go with sounds  sound out/decode words made with known letters-sounds  read connected text  answer comprehension questions.

Try teaching ANY of the skills without first teaching the ones listed before. Students won’t get it.

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3. (rule).Start sections with big ideas.

Big ideas are like the picture on the cover of a jigsaw puzzle box.

The big idea (picture) helps to make sense of the separate parts.

“Addition is just counting forward by ones.” Then show how.

A diagram that depicts causes and sequence of genocide. Then examine examples.

The concept of representative government. Use it to examine past, current, and possible future governments.

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4. (rule).Teach all four phases of mastery




There’s an effective method for teaching each phase….

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5. (rule).Teach new knowledge (acquisitionphase of mastery) in a systematic, explicit, direct way? General procedure

  • Gain attention. “Eyes on me.”

  • Frame instruction. “Now you’ll learn to…”

  • Model, lead, test the first example in the acquisition set; e.g., how to sound out words or solve math problem.

  • Model. Lead, test the next examples in the acquisition set.

  • Test/check all examples---delayed acquisition test.

  • Test new examples. “These are new examples, but you can (sound them out, solve them with the routine). I’ll show you how (model)… Now your turn…”

  • Correct all errors---model, lead, test, start over, retest

    Hold on. There’s an incoming message….

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6. (rule).Systematically work on the three other phases of mastery

a. Fluency: accuracy plus speed.

  • Model fluency. “I’ll show you how to read sentences fast.”

  • Teach component skills to fluency. Saying sounds fast ->

    reading letters fast -> reading words fast.

  • Use pacing devices. Clapping, metronome.

    Repetition. “Let’s read it again the fast way. Error limit is two.”

  • Speed drills, one minute timings. Graph.

    Words correct/ 140 * Goal

    minute 120

    100 * * *

    80 * *

    60 * *

    40 * *

    20 *

    Fluency drills

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b. (rule).Generalization.

  • Use a generalization set---examples that differ in nonessential ways (e.g., different numbers) but are the same in essential ways (e.g., how you treat them---as examples of the same KIND of problem).

  • Model how to show that new examples are the same (in how you treat them) as the ones in the acquisition set.

  • Work on them one at a time: model, lead, test.

  • Gradually, fade out the model and lead.

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c. (rule).Retention.

  • Cumulative review. All examples from the last lesson plus most of the second to last lesson, plus some of previous lessons.

  • Always include items on which students were not firm.

  • Reteach as needed.

  • Use retention information (e.g., which students miss which items) to improve teaching in general (e.g., use more examples during acquisition) and to individualize (e.g., special sessions of intensive instruction).

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7. (rule).Strategically integrate part skills (basics) into larger wholes; e.g., use knowledge of historical periods, biography, rhyme, figures of speech, and symbolism to perform a routine---analyze poems.

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8. (rule).Identify possible errors and provide correction procedures.

“When student makes reading error:

‘That words is….’

‘What word?’….


‘Start over.’”

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9. (rule).Provide organizers, such as diagrams that summarize a lot of information, outlines of the information, and guided notes (outline of presentation with space for taking notes).

1. Definition of political system


Kinds of Definitions Advantages/ Typical cycles

political disadvantages of change





**direct democracy



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10. (rule).Provide scripts.

Eyes on me. Sitting big.

New sound. f

Watch my finger.

This sound [touch under f] is ffff.

Again, this sound is ffff.

When I touch under the sound, YOU say the sound with me. Get ready. ffff

Your turn. What sound? fffff

Yes, ffff.

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Some persons will tell you that (rule).“scripts rob teachers of creativity. Don’t use scripted programs!”

These persons are not your friend!

They won’t be in school with you when you try to teach, with no idea what you are supposed to say.

And all you have is some dippy little “lesson plan.”

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Members of all professions, sports, and arts follow (and master) some form of script.

In fact, the script (the protocol, the way of doing things) DEFINES expertise.

For instance.…

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Surgeons follow protocols. master) some form of script.

  • Premedication was carried out through a dart injection. 300mg tiletamine-zolazepam was administered intramuscular (i.m.). After 10 minutes, the animal could be transferred to the presurgery room (very good muscular relaxation).

  • An intravenous catheter nº 20 gauge was placed in the left ulnar vein and an infusion was initiated with physiologic solution 0,8% at 10 ml/ kg/hr. Local infiltration was carried out with lidocaine 2% in the tarsus at the level of the malleolus (nervus tibialis anterior) and plantar (n. fibularis profundus and n. plantaris internus) of the affected extremity.

  • Induction was performed with intravenous (i.v.) propofol 1mg/kg and midazolam 0,1 mg/kg.

  • Endotracheal intubation was performed with a rect branch laryngoscope and endotracheal tube n° 8 for assisted respiration. Protocol was planned for maintenance of anesthesia (parenteral anesthesia). A butorphanol infusion was initiated at 10g/kg/hr. Bradypnea was noticed and assisted ventilation initiated.

  • The hemodynamic function remained stable, with light bradycardia at the beginning of the surgical intervention. The intrasurgical measures are shown in Table 1.


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Dancers follow dance notation. master) some form of script.

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Martial artists follow the “forms.” master) some form of script.

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Musicians and singers follow the score. master) some form of script.

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Basketball, football, baseball, and soccer teams follow the play book---with diagrams of who does what.

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Contractors follow the blue prints play book---with diagrams of who does what..

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Plumbers and electricians follow the “codes.” play book---with diagrams of who does what.

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Human beings have spent thousands of years play book---with diagrams of who does what.figuring out, organizing, and passing onknowledge of how best to do things.

Each profession, art, and sport does different things in routine ways governed by standards, all resting on a shared knowledge base.

Education IS supposed to be a profession.

Expecting each teacher to create her own materials is the opposite of what a REAL profession expects of members.

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What happens to student learning while teachers are trying to “figure out” how to teach?

Give up?

Okay, here’s what happens….

This could be YOU.

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There’s bag.no way a new teacher can design instruction as well as experts who have worked for years on a program and have tested it and revised it with thousands of students.

To “create” how you teach---the examples to use, the words to say, the methods to assess learning, the way to correct errors---will take five years; you will NOT do a good job; your students will be harmed forever.

Is this ethical?

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You’ll spend hours every night and all weekend doing it. bag.

You’ll be nuts in no time from overwork.

Making goofy faces and wearing cheese for a hat.

Kitteh shows what you’ll look like…

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BUT! bag.

When you use effective scripted programs, YOU LEARNhow to design and deliver instruction. Just as you become a master martial artist by doing what the master does.

So, be creative…

Painting your toe nails.

Making stupid noises.

Sewing buttons on your face.

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Boy, this makes me mad! bag.

MiniKitteh agrees….

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There are three levels of bag.quality in materials—textbooks and programs—in books, on CDs, and on the internet.

kakoVPretty goodExcellent

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1. bag.KakoV. Bad. StinkV

  • Doesn’t cover what is needed--- content has significant gaps.

  • Little or no work on fluency, generalization, retention.

  • Few stated and clear objectives.

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KakoV. Bad. StinkV bag.

  • Illogical order; e.g.,

  • Teaches problems before students are firm on pre-skills needed to solve problems.

  • Presents text before it teaches big ideas and definitions of words IN the text;

  • Teaches unusual examples before common examples.

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KakoV. Bad. StinkV bag.

  • Does not align with state standard course of study.


  • Does not comply with state law.


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KakoV. Bad. StinkV bag.

  • Uses teaching methods that are

    untested or that are known to be


  • There are no organizers, such as

    outlines and guided notes, or these

    organizers communicate poorly (e.g., they are too complicated).

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  • Content contains politically correct, leftist bag. propaganda, appealing to gullibility and desire to belong. “Che Guevara was a great revolutionary.” [He was

    a degenerate, a murderer and coward.]

    “America is a (racist, sexist, classist society based on exploitation.” [Yes, millions leave every year.]

    “Gobal warming is a great danger.We must impose

    regulations and taxes to reduce carbon emissions.”

    [How do YOU spell C O N T R O L? Temperature is falling steadily. CO2 is a minute fraction of the atmosphere and has NOTHING to do with raising temperature. There was more CO2 in the atmosphere BEFORE industrialization. Banning DDT has killed millions in Africa. Any more grand schemes supported by junk science and appeals to emotion?]

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2. Pretty Good bag.

  • Covers most of what is needed---but there are some content gaps to fill.

  • Some work on fluency, generalization, retention.

  • There are stated objectives.

  • Generally logical order; e.g., teaches pre-skills needed for more advanced skills.

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Pretty Good bag.

  • Is aligned with state standard course of study and state law.

  • Generally uses teaching methods that are tested and known to be ineffective.

  • Many good organizers.

  • No political agenda except support for our civilization.

    However, needs supplementation of content from internet or other materials, and more scaffolding (e.g., more work on fluency; re-arrange order of instruction so that pre-skills are taught first; more review to build retention; more organizers).

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3. Excellent. bag.

Most scaffolding is there, but still needs some scaffolding, such as outlines and guided notes, vocabulary (concept) definitions, more assessments, and ways to “differentiate instruction” for different students.

At this point, everything should be as clear to you as it is to Kitteh….

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So, you need to learn bag.how to assess materials, and determine the adequacy of content, sequence, and scaffolding.

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And then you need determine actually to improve them; e.g., add information on the Persian Wars, and this nation’s founding documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, Constitution) to a history course; develop fluency exercises for math materials; write scripts; make guided notes and graphic organizers.

Assessing and Improving Curriculum Materials

Evaluating and Improving Materials

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If you are teaching from a good to excellent determine program, you only need to practice the scripts and add a bit of scaffolding.

For example:

  • More examples during initial instruction (acquisition phase).

  • More work on fluency.

  • Additional visual cues; e.g., highlighting.

  • More detailed scripted procedures.

  • More work on vocabulary.

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But if you are teaching from a determine textbook or other less-scaffolded material, you have to do more.

Not all kittehs agree, however. Admiral Nelson says….

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

1. Add content (e.g., from internet) and scaffolding.

2. Examine sections. Develop long-term objectives. What are students supposed to do at the end of a chapter? Solve a range of math problems? Conduct a chemistry experiment? Write a paper that states the events leading to the American Revolution, the persons and groups involved, dates and places?

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

3. Examine the sections again. Based on the long-term objectives, what facts, lists, concepts, rules, and routines IN the materials do you want students to learn? You can’t teach everything.

4. Make guided notes and other organizers for this content. For example, a diagram of events leading to the American Revolution; a protocol for conducting the chemistry experiment.

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

5. Develop a sequence for instruction.

In history, the information should be presented in a way that tells a story.

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

In other subjects, information should be presented in a logical progression.

For instance, students learn pre-skills first (e.g., definitions and rules) before they learn OTHER things that require that they know the definitions and rules.

The sequence you develop may not be the same as in the textbook—especially if you add material.

Sometimes you may be baffled, like these guys….

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

6.Decide how you will present the information.

** Short lectures and or Powerpoints, with frequent question and answer?

** Socratic method. Students read sections; the teacher asks questions; there is discussion relevant to the long-term objectives?

“So, how does this event (Boston Massacre) help us to understand the Revolution?”

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

7. Write scriptsfor how you will present the information.

How will you teach vocabulary/concepts? Definitions? What examples?

What questions will you ask regarding the text they just read?

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

8. How will you assess learning of everything you teach while you teach---acquisition tests?

** Frequent questions during.

“So, what is the definition of tyranny?”

“Make up an example of representative democracy.”

** Short tests after a section is worked on.

“Here is a list of the words we worked on today. Write a brief definition of each one. Give an example and a nonexample. Explain.”

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

9. How will you correct errors?

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Teaching from Textbooks and Internet Docs determine

10. What will you do if assessment shows that some students are not getting it?

** Reteach?

** Intensive instruction?

Four-Level Procedure for Remediation

Well, that’s about it. Time for beddy-bye.