Overview of Curriculum, Curriculum Materials, and Instruction “Haaaaalllllp! I make mistake. No can fly!”
Main Ideas 1. A curriculum is all of the information, skills, or knowledge that students are to learn, and the sequence in which they are to learn it. Scope and sequence charts show what is taught and when.
Scope and Sequence (What and When) Chart for a Beginning Reading Curriculum Lessons 1 100 Hear sounds in words (phonemic awareness) |--------------| Sounds that go with letters (letter-sound correspondence: alphabetic principle) |-------------------------------------------------------| Decoding (sounding out unfamiliar words: alphabetic principle) |-----------------------------------------------------------| Fluency (reading letters, words, sentences, paragraphs fast and accurately) |-------------------------------------------------------------| Vocabulary |-------------------------------------------------------------| Text Comprehension |----------------------------------------------------------|
2. It’s important that a curriculum includes the essential and important information. And… 3. It’s important that the sequence is logical. For example, you should • Teach pre-skills, elements, or basics first (e.g., in beginning reading and math). • Tell a story or develop a big picture (e.g., in history)
Instruction (communication) is a main way you “deliver” information in the curriculum. • Most instruction (communication) will come from curriculum/instructional materials.
6. Materials include books, internet documents, CDs, DVDs, Powerpoint presentations, and your own knowledge. • Two kinds of materials. • Some materials are programs---for teaching tool skills, such as beginning reading, math, language, spelling, logic. • Other materials are resource materials (e.g., textbooks and internet documents) for teaching content or subject matter, such as history and science.
8. Scaffolding is anything added to information (in demonstrations, lectures, and materials) that makes it easier to communicate and learn. read The little letters tell kids not to say them. 42 First multiply the numbers in the ones X15 column. [Point and say.] Numbers in the ones column are in blue. What numbers are in the ones column? 2 and 5.Yes, 2 and 5 are the numbers in the ones column. So, what numbers are we going to multiply first? 2 and 5.Yes, 2 and 5. Go! [How many times did we test/check whether students got it?]
9. Scaffolding includes: outlines, extra cues (e.g., to highlight information), guided notes, diagrams, summaries, explicit instructions for the teacher on how to deliver the information (maybe even scripts), a logical progression of information to teach, “big ideas” that help students make sense and organize information, and glossaries.
10. Programs tend to have more scaffolding than resource materials, such as textbooks and internet documents. This means that you have to add scaffolding to these resource materials. [You better, you bet!]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ir2rFb_ghn0 However, programs need more scaffolding, too. There’s always something you can add to make communication clearer. Any questions?
11. There are only six kinds of information, skills, or knowledge that can be communicated and learned: Facts. The first ten amendments are called “The Bill of Rights.” Lists. The ten lost tribes of Israel are… Sensory concepts. blue, on Higher-order concepts. Color, society, mammal Rules. If X increases, then Y increases. All dogs are canines. Routines. Sequences of steps
12. There is a procedure for teaching each of the six kinds of knowledge. The procedure is the same regardless of the content. However, each procedure is a simple variation of a general procedure for teaching. **Gain attention. **Frame instruction---say what you’ll be teaching. **Present information with the first example (model). **Have students do it with you (lead). **Check to see if they got it (immediate acquisition test/check). **Use model, lead, test with more examples and nonexamples (for contrast). **Test/check with all examples and nonexamples (delayed acquisition test) **Correct all errors and retest. Variations of this general procedure are: (1) how many examples and nonexamples are used (for concepts and rules); and (2) whether you teach a sequence of steps (routine) or items (list).
13. There are five phases of mastery of information, skills, or knowledge: (1) acquisition of new knowledge. (2) generalization of knowledge to new examples. (3) fluent use of knowledge (fast, accurate); (4) integration of knowledge elements into complex wholes---such as solutions, descriptions, explanations; and (5) retention of knowledge. There are simpleprocedures for teaching each phase.
14. It’s wise to use materials that are highly scaffolded---and that even have scripts. These materials are likely to have been thoroughly field tested. They will also save you countless hours trying to add the scaffolding yourself.
15. But many “educators” tell you NOT to use highly scaffolded materials. “Be creative,” they say. “Make up your materials yourself,” they say. These persons are WRONG. [Did you write the software for your computer?]
15. Materials vary in quality. • Stinky. Don’t use. • Pretty good. • Excellent. There are criteria for evaluating materials and decided how good they are and exactly how to improve them.
16. If you use pretty good or excellent materials, you still have to add some scaffolding and maybe content, such as supplementary information to fill gaps, outlines, vocabulary, guided notes, and more work on fluency and retention.
17. If you teach from textbooks and internet documents,you have to design the instruction, because you can’t teach all of the information in these materials, and the information may need to be presented in a more logical sequence. Now let’s expand these points. But first, do you know what MisterBunneh said?......
Most of the time you’ll be teaching from materials---books, CDs, and internet.
Some materials will be programs---usually for teaching basic skills, or “tool skills” (skills used for learning other skills). Tool skills include reading, spelling, math, language, reasoning, writing.
Other materials are resource materials---such as textbooks and internet documents---usually in “content areas” such as literature, biology, and history.
Scaffolding is anything added to information that makes it easier for students to learn (e.g., by making communication clear) and that makes it easier for teachers to communicate (e.g., providing teachers with procedures for teaching).
Scaffolding can be added to materials, demonstrations, and explanations. For instance, you can insert an outline, definitions of new concepts, and review relevant background information before you introduce a unit on the Civil War.
Programsaremore scaffolded than textbooks. They have stated objectives; a logical progression of skills (they teach pre-skills, or basics, first); ways to assess student learning; ways to correct errors; explicit instructions to the teacher on how to teach new skills and how to build fluency and generalization and retention; maybe even scripts to help the teacher communicate information clearly. Here are examples. https://www.sraonline.com/products.html?PHPSESSID=fc093dd959628d7328d402ebbc7261a5&tid=9
Resource materials---such as textbooks---are less scaffolded. They may introduce new vocabulary words and summarize each section, but they are mostly a collection of facts and concepts. They don’t tell you what to teach, how to teach, or how to tell if students are learning.
If you could find a program or a textbook---for instance in math, reading, science or history---that had a lot of scaffolding, would it be smart to use it?
Sure, go ahead and try. With ONE course in instructional design, I’m sure you’ll do a GREAT job right out of ed school. Use all of your evenings and weekends designing lessons. [You’ll be on Paxil in a week.] Test your lessons on students. It’s okay if the lessons are not effective. Just redesign them and try again and again and again. Waste a whole year! This is soooo much smarter than using materials prepared by experts, who do nothing else and who test and improve the materials for years before making them available.
Whatever the subject matter is (math, literature); and whether you have books, CDs, or the internet; and whether the materials are a program or a textbook---it all boils down to words and pictures that contain information---knowledge---that you want to communicate to students.
What kinds of information, or knowledge, are there in materials, and that can be communicated and learned? I’ll tell you. But first, Shorty McHairface has a question…
There are only SIX kinds of information or knowledge. • Facts. Boston is the capital of Massachusetts. How to teach. State the fact (model). [Students write it down?] Then have students say the fact with you (lead). Then have students state the fact by themselves (test/check). 2. Lists. The six New England states are Maine… How to teach. Model the first several on list. Then students say with you. Then test. Add more (model, lead, test). Then do all (model, lead, test).
Basic or sensory concepts.One example shows all of the defining features. red, straight line, on top. How to teach. ** Present/model a range of examples that differ in size, shape, etc., but are the same in the defining feature (e.g., color)—to allow comparison, to identify sameness. “This is red.” ** Juxtapose examples and nonexamples that are the same except for the defining feature---to show contrast, to identify difference that makes the difference. ** Test with all examples and nonexamples (delayed acquisition test). “Is this red?...Is this red?” ** Test with new examples (generalization test). “red” “red” “not red” “red” “not red” “red” juxtaposition juxtaposition
4. Higher-order concepts. Features are spread out. Can’t be sensed all at once. Representative democracy, cell mitosis, table, galaxy. How to teach. ** Teach the definition: model, lead, test/check. “Mitosis is….” ** Then present examples and nonexamples, as with sensory concepts. ** Test all (delayed acquisition test). “Is this…?” “How do you know?” ** Generalize to new examples and nonexamples.
5. Rules. Statements that connect NOT one thing and another thing (e.g., name and date), but connect whole sets of things (concepts). “When demand increases, price increases.” price “All dogs have four legs.” 4-legged demand Dogs
Teach rules one of two ways. a. Deductive method---from general (rule) to specific (examples). ** Teach rule statement (model, lead, test) first. ** Then present examples and nonexamples---as with concepts. ** Then test all examples and nonexamples. “Is this an example of the demand-price rule?” price demand “No.” “How do you know?” Students state rule. ** Then generalize to/test new examples and nonexamples.
b. Inductive method---from specific (examples) to general (rule). ** Present a range of examples first (e.g., different price-demand curves): cars, oil, movies. price demand ** Show students how to compare the examples and to identify the sameness—the relationship. One variable goes up and the other variable goes up. “Price varies directly with demand.” ** Then present nonexamples, and show (in relation to the rule) how they are nonexamples. “Demand is increasing, but price stays the same. That does NOT fit the rule. ** Then give new examples and nonexamples, and have students say if they are or are not examples, and how they know.
The deductive method is easier. Students merely have to SEE how examples fit the rule and nonexamples do not. In the inductive method, students have to figure out the rule by comparing examples (to see the sameness) and contrasting with nonexamples (to see the difference). Use induction AFTER you teach a ROUTINE for comparing and contrasting and figuring out sameness and difference.
6. Routines.A sequence of steps for getting something done. Solving math problems, sounding out words, writing essays, brushing your teeth, brushing someone else’s teeth. How to teach. Teach the same way you teach lists. Model, lead, test each step (or a few steps); add a few more steps and then do the whole sequence so far (model, lead, test); add a few more; etc. Kitteh tells you all about it…
Materials (programs) and resource materials (such as textbooks) differ in how much scaffolding is in them.Scaffolding includes: 1. Stated objectives for each section. 2. Teach information/knowledge in a logical progression. Teach pre-skills/parts before teaching larger chunks that require the pre-skills. say sounds hear sounds in words letters that go with sounds sound out/decode words made with known letters-sounds read connected text answer comprehension questions. Try teaching ANY of the skills without first teaching the ones listed before. Students won’t get it.
3. Start sections with big ideas. Big ideas are like the picture on the cover of a jigsaw puzzle box. The big idea (picture) helps to make sense of the separate parts. “Addition is just counting forward by ones.” Then show how. A diagram that depicts causes and sequence of genocide. Then examine examples. The concept of representative government. Use it to examine past, current, and possible future governments.
4.Teach all four phases of mastery Fluency AcquisitionRetention Generalization There’s an effective method for teaching each phase….
5. Teach new knowledge (acquisitionphase of mastery) in a systematic, explicit, direct way? General procedure • Gain attention. “Eyes on me.” • Frame instruction. “Now you’ll learn to…” • Model, lead, test the first example in the acquisition set; e.g., how to sound out words or solve math problem. • Model. Lead, test the next examples in the acquisition set. • Test/check all examples---delayed acquisition test. • Test new examples. “These are new examples, but you can (sound them out, solve them with the routine). I’ll show you how (model)… Now your turn…” • Correct all errors---model, lead, test, start over, retest Hold on. There’s an incoming message….