PAIN. Pain from poena ---> Latin means punishment . PAIN - INTRODUCTION. Pain is the most important protective sensation. It is an unpleasant sensation and is the most primitive of all senses.
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Precursor breakdown and
liberation of neuropeptide
Usually are more potent than classical neurotransmitter : lower concentration and longer effect
Opioid receptor : δ receptor
Function : analgesia by block the pain before it is relayed
to the brain
Afferent pain fiber
Opioid receptorExample of Neuropeptides
Cerebral cortex - influence mood, ephoria and emotionalaspect of pain
Thalamus – influence poorly localizeddeep pain
Midbrain (periaqueductal grey matter) - modulationof pain
Brain stem - respiratory control, cough reflex, nausea/vomitingetc.
Hypothalamus - temperature and neuro-endocrine function
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Ca++ -dependentNitric Oxide
Our axons can be >1 m in length---how does the neurotrophin/receptor complex signal to the neuronal cell body?
Miller and Kaplan (2001) Neuron 32:767-770
Sympathetic neurons were placed in a TC system that allowed the somas and neurites to be bathed in different media.
L: Most neurons die when grown without NGF for 30 hr.
R: Neurons can be kept alive by adding NGF only to the compartments with growing neurites.
In both cases, anti-NGF prevented TrkA activation in the central compartment.