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Pain & Pain Management PSYC 4080 Health Psychology Amber M. Henslee, M.S. Meaning of Pain __________ pain Tissue damage to the body Psychological/emotional pain Perception EX: hook through the arm Stages of Pain Acute Pain Short duration Signals us not to do that again!

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Pain pain management l.jpg

Pain & Pain Management

PSYC 4080

Health Psychology

Amber M. Henslee, M.S.


Meaning of pain l.jpg
Meaning of Pain

  • __________ pain

    • Tissue damage to the body

  • Psychological/emotional pain

    • Perception

      • EX: hook through the arm


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Stages of Pain

  • Acute Pain

    • Short duration

    • Signals us not to do that again!

    • e.g., _______

  • Prechronic Pain

    • Either overcome pain or develops feelings of _________

  • Chronic Pain

    • Long duration

    • Either from injury or a chronic condition

    • e.g., lower back


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Assessment

  • Self report

    • Rating scales, questionnaires

  • ___________ methods

    • Behavioral assessment

  • Physiological measures

    • ____ (Electromyography) measures muscle tension




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What you can observe:

Muscle rigidity

Tears

Grimace

Groan

Agitation

_____________

What they report:

Intensity

_________

Duration

Better or Worse

Signs vs. Symptoms


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Pain Management Techniques

  • Relaxation

  • Biofeedback

  • Hypnosis

  • Acupuncture

  • TENS (____________)

  • Distraction

  • Medication - __________

  • Surgery


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Biofeedback

  • DFN = info on bodily process to learn to control it

    • e.g., bp, hr, skin temp

  • Electromyograph (EMG) = electrical discharge in muscle fibers

  • __________ = skin temperature

  • Audio/visual signal

  • Trial/error- patient changes thoughts & behaviors


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Biofeedback Outcomes

  • Joint pain, migraine headache, hypertension

  • Expensive technology & trained personnel

    • Relaxation & hypnosis cheaper & easier

  • NOT better for _____

  • Better for migraines


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Hypnosis

  • __________ state

  • Mesmer made famous

  • Multiple DFNS:

    • altered state of consciousness

    • trait of hypnotizability

  • Hypnotized people:

    • will perform minor feats

    • won’t hurt self or others


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Hypnosis Process

  • Relaxation

  • Told it will decrease pain (_______)

  • Induction = being placed under hypnosis (distraction)

  • Instructed to think of pain differently (reinterpretation)


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Hypnosis Outcomes

  • Surgery, childbirth, dental procedures, burns, headaches

  • Unclear: block pain OR _________

  • NOT better for low suggestible pts

  • Better for high suggestible pts


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Acupuncture

  • DFN = long, thin needles

    inserted into body

  • China: anesthetic for surgery

  • Expectations

    • Decreases fear

    • Increases tolerance

  • Releases __________? (thus decreased pain)

  • Better for short-term pain


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Distraction

  • Other activity (e.g., pledge of allegiance, art/crafts)

  • ______________

  • Better for short-term, low-level pain


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Medication

  • Morphine

    • Tolerance

    • ___________

    • Good for severe pain

    • Poor for one who is chemically dependent

  • Local anesthetics to wounded area

  • Block transmission (e.g., spinal cord)

  • Brain (e.g., antidepressants)


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Surgery

  • Cut/disrupt body’s “pain fibers”

    • Periphery to spinal cord

    • Spinal cord to brain

  • ___________ (e.g., different neural pathways)

  • Damage nervous system > chronic pain


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