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Pain & Pain Management PSYC 4080 Health Psychology Amber M. Henslee, M.S. Meaning of Pain __________ pain Tissue damage to the body Psychological/emotional pain Perception EX: hook through the arm Stages of Pain Acute Pain Short duration Signals us not to do that again!

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pain pain management

Pain & Pain Management

PSYC 4080

Health Psychology

Amber M. Henslee, M.S.

meaning of pain
Meaning of Pain
  • __________ pain
    • Tissue damage to the body
  • Psychological/emotional pain
    • Perception
      • EX: hook through the arm
stages of pain
Stages of Pain
  • Acute Pain
    • Short duration
    • Signals us not to do that again!
    • e.g., _______
  • Prechronic Pain
    • Either overcome pain or develops feelings of _________
  • Chronic Pain
    • Long duration
    • Either from injury or a chronic condition
    • e.g., lower back
assessment
Assessment
  • Self report
    • Rating scales, questionnaires
  • ___________ methods
    • Behavioral assessment
  • Physiological measures
    • ____ (Electromyography) measures muscle tension
signs vs symptoms
What you can observe:

Muscle rigidity

Tears

Grimace

Groan

Agitation

_____________

What they report:

Intensity

_________

Duration

Better or Worse

Signs vs. Symptoms
pain management techniques
Pain Management Techniques
  • Relaxation
  • Biofeedback
  • Hypnosis
  • Acupuncture
  • TENS (____________)
  • Distraction
  • Medication - __________
  • Surgery
biofeedback
Biofeedback
  • DFN = info on bodily process to learn to control it
    • e.g., bp, hr, skin temp
  • Electromyograph (EMG) = electrical discharge in muscle fibers
  • __________ = skin temperature
  • Audio/visual signal
  • Trial/error- patient changes thoughts & behaviors
biofeedback outcomes
Biofeedback Outcomes
  • Joint pain, migraine headache, hypertension
  • Expensive technology & trained personnel
    • Relaxation & hypnosis cheaper & easier
  • NOT better for _____
  • Better for migraines
hypnosis
Hypnosis
  • __________ state
  • Mesmer made famous
  • Multiple DFNS:
    • altered state of consciousness
    • trait of hypnotizability
  • Hypnotized people:
    • will perform minor feats
    • won’t hurt self or others
hypnosis process
Hypnosis Process
  • Relaxation
  • Told it will decrease pain (_______)
  • Induction = being placed under hypnosis (distraction)
  • Instructed to think of pain differently (reinterpretation)
hypnosis outcomes
Hypnosis Outcomes
  • Surgery, childbirth, dental procedures, burns, headaches
  • Unclear: block pain OR _________
  • NOT better for low suggestible pts
  • Better for high suggestible pts
acupuncture
Acupuncture
  • DFN = long, thin needles

inserted into body

  • China: anesthetic for surgery
  • Expectations
    • Decreases fear
    • Increases tolerance
  • Releases __________? (thus decreased pain)
  • Better for short-term pain
distraction
Distraction
  • Other activity (e.g., pledge of allegiance, art/crafts)
  • ______________
  • Better for short-term, low-level pain
medication
Medication
  • Morphine
    • Tolerance
    • ___________
    • Good for severe pain
    • Poor for one who is chemically dependent
  • Local anesthetics to wounded area
  • Block transmission (e.g., spinal cord)
  • Brain (e.g., antidepressants)
surgery
Surgery
  • Cut/disrupt body’s “pain fibers”
    • Periphery to spinal cord
    • Spinal cord to brain
  • ___________ (e.g., different neural pathways)
  • Damage nervous system > chronic pain