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Chapter 5 Crisis in the Colonies 1745- 1775
Chapter 5, Section 1 The French and Indian War
European Rivals in North America • By mid 1700s four major powers in Europe were in a struggle to expand their Empire. • England • Spain • France • Netherlands • They competed for trade and colonies all over the globe.
European Rivals in North America • North America would be caught up in a major contest among these super powers. • France posed the most serious threat to the colonies. • France built forts, which prevented English colonies from expanding to the west.
Conflict in the Ohio Valley • By 1740s traders were crossing the Appalachian Mountains in search for furs. • Colonists passed into the Ohio Valley and tried to take over France’s trade with the Indians. • France was determined to prevent the colonists form expanding and taking over the Ohio River. -provided a link between their lands and Canada and their settlements along the Mississippi River.
Native Americans Choose Sides • Indians hunted and grew cops in the Ohio Valley and didn’t want to give up their land to anyone. • Native Americans knew they had to choose sides between the French and English. • The French believed the Native Americans would side with them for two reasons. • The French were trappers and traders and didn’t destroy the land. • Many French trappers married Native Americans. • They grew alliances with the Algonquin's and the Huron.
Native Americans Choose Sides cont.. • The English were farmers and ignored Indian rights, they cut down forests and cleared land for crops. • Britain managed to form an alliance with the Iroquois. • The Iroquois were also enemies of the Algonquin and the Huron.
Native Americans Choose Sides cont. • Englishmen William Johnson played a huge role in forming an alliance with the Iroquois because he married Molly Brant who was Native American. • The English also lowered prices for good as apposed to the French.
The French and Indian War • Three times between 1689 and 1748 France and England fought for power in Europe and North America. • Fighting took place for a four time in 1754, in the conflict known as the French and Indian War. • The opening shots of the war were fired by soldiers led by George Washington!.
A Young Bold Leader 22 years old at the start of the War. Grew up on a Plantation in Virginia. Wealthy Family. Gifted in Math, became a land surveyor at the age of 15. At 22, Washington’s first assignment was to build a fort where the Monogahela and Allegheny rivers meet, which formed the Ohio River.
George Washington cont… • He led 150 men into the Ohio country in April 1754. • The French however, already completed Fort Duquesne at the same spot where Washington was going to build his fort.
Conflict at Fort Necessity • Indian Allies revealed French scouts were camped out in the Woods. • Washington launched a surprise attack. • In fear of the French attacking Washington and his men built “Fort Necessity”.
Fort Necessity cont.. • A force of 700 French and Indians surrounded the fort. • Being outnumbered and trapped Washington and his men surrendered. • The French released Washington and his men and they were forced to turn home.
The Albany Congress. • Delegates form seven colonies met in Albany, New York for two reasons. • 1. Cement the alliance with the Iroquois. • 2 Plan a united colonial defense.
Benjamin Franklin • Benjamin Franklin, from Pennsylvania proposed the Albany Plan of Union. • Albany Plan of Union – a proposal to make one government for the 13 colonies. • Nobody supported it because they didn’t want to give up their power to a central government.
Disaster for Braddock • General Edward Braddock, led British and colonial troops in an attack against Fort Duquesne. • The French and Indians launched a surprise attack and their sharpshooters picked off British soldiers one by one. • Half of the British forces were killed, Braddock was killed, and Washington was nearly killed!
Further British Setbacks • The British lost battle after battle over the next two years. • Native Americans began losing faith in the British because they were counting on the British to protect them from the French.
The Tide of Battle Turns • William Pitt became the new head of the British Government. • First goal was to win the War in North America. • Sent his Best Generals to America. • Promised colonists large payments and supplies if they joined the war effort.
The Tide of Battle Turns • The British began to turn the tide of the war in 1758. • British General Jeffrey Amherst Captured Fort Louisbourg, the most important fort in French Canada. • Later that year the British recaptured Fort Duquesne, which they later renamed Fort Pitt.
The Fall of New France • British success continued in 1759 where they captured several forts such as Fort Niagara, Crown point, and Fort Ticonderoga. • They later captured Quebec, the capital of NEW France.
Battle For New Quebec • Quebec was vital to the French because without it they could not supply their other forts. • The city sat on the edge of the Plains of Abraham, which sat on top of a high cliff. • French general, Marquis de Montclam, was in charge of fighting off any attack.
Battle for Quebec cont… • British General Wolfe, came up with a bold plan to capture the city. • He ordered his man to row in small boats to the foot of the cliff, climb the cliff, and assemble at the top. • Wolfe was able to assemble a force of 4,000 soldiers and attack Quebec. • By the end of the battle both Wolfe and Montclam were killed. • On September 18, 1759, Quebec Surrendered to the British.
Treaty of Paris • The fall of Quebec Sealed Frances fate. • In 1763 Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris, bringing the conflict to an end. • This treaty marked the end of French power in North America. • Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans..
Treaty of Paris continued • Spain who entered the war in 1762, in support of the French gave up Florida to Britain. • Spain however did receive all of the French land west of Mississippi. • They also gained control of the vital port of New Orleans.
Chapter 5, Section 2 Turmoil Over Taxation
Clashes with Native Americans • A lot of Indian Nations lived in the Ohio Valley such as the Seneca's, Delaware's, and Shawnees. • As British settlers moved westward, they often clashed with the Natives. • Lord Jeffery Amherst was sent to the frontier to maintain order. • The French fur traders treated the Indians as friends and had meals together. • Lord Amherst refused.
Pontiac • Angry Native Americans found a Leader in Pontiac. • He was an Ottawa chief who fought with the French. • Was the most respected Native American. • Hated the British for steeling their hunting grouds.
War on the Frontier • Pontiac attacked For Detroit along with several other Indian nations. • Pontiac’s War - did not last long, since the French signed the Treaty of Paris, they could no longer help the Native Americans. • As a result, one by one of the Indian nations stopped fighting.
Proclamation of 1763 • Pontiacs war convinced British officials to stop British subjects from going onto the western frontier. • Proclamation of 1763 - drew an imaginary line along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists were prohibited from settling west of the line. • People who already lived west of the Appalachians were forced to move.
Proclamation of 1763 continued • It was meant to protect Indian langs. • The British sent 10,000 troops to the colonies to enforce it. • Few went to the west most stayed in cities along the Atlantic Coast. • Colonists were furious with new proclamation because now they had to pay for additional British troops.
Britain Imposes New Taxes • The French and Indian war plunged Britain in debt. • Taxes paid by citizens in Great Britain rose. • British Prime Minister Greenville thought the Colonists should help share the burden. • He believed the colonists would not oppose small tax increases.
The Sugar Act • In 1764, Parliament approved the Sugar Act, which put a new tax on molasses. • The Sugar Act replaced an earlier tax, that was so high that any merchant who paid it would go out of business. • Merchants used to smuggle in molasses to the colonies. • The law also made it easier for British officials to bring smugglers to trial. • Greenville expected this new tax to be paid.
The Stamp Act • Greenville persuaded Parliament to pass the Stamp Act in 1765. • Placed duties on legal documents such wills, diplomas, and marriage papers. It also placed a tax on newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice. • The Stamp Act was used in Britain and other countries but never before in the colonies.
Protesting the Stamp Act • Colonists protested the stamp act. • Some colonists threw stones at tax collectors. • Some were tarred and feathered. • Great Britain was shocked by this behavior. After all, Great Britain spent a great deal of money to protect them from the French. • If British citizens back home were paying taxes than the colonists should as well.
“No Taxation Without Representation” • Colonists said the taxes were unfair and went against the principle that there should be not taxation without representation. • Colonists believed that only their elected representatives could tax them. • Since they did no elect representatives in Parliament, they believed that they had no right to tax them. • Colonists were willing to pay taxes but only if they were passed by their own colonial legislatures.
Uniting a Peaceful Protest • Stamp Act united colonists from New Hampshire to Georgia. • Delegates from every colony met in New York to discuss actions against the stamp act. • October 1765, the nine delegates who went were known as the Stamp Act Congress. • They drew up a petition against King George III and to Parliament. • Petition - a formal written request to someone in authority, signed by a group of people.
Uniting a Peaceful Protest continued. • Colonists also fought back by boycotting, or refusing to buy certain goods or services. • British merchants were facing ruin. • As a result, in 1766 Parliament repealed, or canceled the Stamp Act. • Parliament also passed a law stating they had the right to raise taxes in “all cases whatsoever.”
The Townshend Acts • George Greenville, a member of Parliament and Charles Townshend, head of the treasury had a heated debate on taxation. • Greenville said Townshend was a coward and wouldn’t dare tax the colonies! • A month later parliament passed the Townshend Acts. • It taxed class, paper, paint, lead, and tea. • The tax was low, but colonists still rejected.
Searching Without a Reason • The Townshend Acts also set up new ways to collect taxes. • Using legal documents known as writs of assistance, the officers would be allowed to inspect a ship’s cargo without giving a reason. • Colonists stated that the Writs of Assistance violated their rights. • Under British law, officials could not search a person’s property without a good reason for suspecting that the person had committed a crime.
Colonial Protests Widen • Colonists signed agreements not to import good that were taxed by the Townshend Acts. • Some angry colonists formed the Sons of Liberty. • From Boston to Charleston, Sons of liberty staged mock hangings of cloth or straw effigies, dressed as British officials.. • The hangings were used to show what might happen to tax collectors.
Daughters of Liberty • The Daughters of Liberty paraded, signed petitions, and organized boycotts of British cloth. • They tried to encourage more women to raise sheep, prepare more wool, and spin and weave their own cloth. • Some even threaten people who continued to buy British goods.
Sons of Liberty from Massachusetts. • Three famous members of the Sons of Liberty from Massachusetts are….. • Sam Adams • John Adams • Mercy Otis Warren
Sam Adams • Sons of Liberty • From Boston , Massachusetts. • He was a failure in business and a poor public speaker. • Wore a red suit and a cheap grey wig. • He arranged protests and gain public support against Britain.
John Adams • Sons of Liberty. • Cousin of Sam Adams. • From Massachusetts. • Former teacher who became a Lawyer.
Mercy Otis Warren • Wrote plays that made fun of British Officials. • The plays were published in newspapers and were read throughout the colonies. • Friends with Abigail Adams, the wife of John Adams. • Both women fought for greater rights for women.
Sons of Liberty continued • Famous members from Virginia were… • George Washington and others protested the Townshend Acts. • Patrick Henry, a young lawyer, was a member of the House of Burgesses, who spoke out against British policies. • His speeches moved a young man who was in the audience named Thomas Jefferson, who was 22 at the time.
Lead up to the Boston Massacre • N.Y. and Boston were cities of protest. • N.Y. Protested against the Quartering Act, which stated Colonists had to provide housing to British soldiers stationed in the colonies. • Britain also sent two regiments of soldiers to Boston to protect custom officials from local citizens. • Bostonians believed that Britain was trying to bully them into paying unjust taxes.