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Mississippi Studies. Chapter 1. Pre-Test. Get out a clean sheet of paper Number the paper 1 through 5 and answer the following questions What were two of the main Indian Tribes in Mississippi? Who were the first Europeans in Mississippi? A. Spanish B. French C. British

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pre test
  • Get out a clean sheet of paper
  • Number the paper 1 through 5 and answer the following questions
  • What were two of the main Indian Tribes in Mississippi?
  • Who were the first Europeans in Mississippi?
    • A. Spanish B. French C. British
  • What is the average summer temperature in Mississippi?
    • A. 70 B. 80 C. 90
  • Which of the following is considered the coldest month in Mississippi?
    • A. November B. December C. January
  • Who discovered the Mississippi River?
    • A. Hernando DeSoto B. Robert de LaSalle C. D’Iberville
early mississippi history
Early Mississippi History
  • Mississippi has a deep history or Native Americans
  • Many of our cities and counties have Native American names
  • Even the name Mississippi is derived from Indian words meaning Great River
prehistoric cultures
Prehistoric Cultures
  • Paleo Culture 10,000 B.C. – 8,000 B.C.
  • Archaic Culture 8,000 B.C. – 500 B.C.
  • Woodland Culture 500 B.C. – 1,000 A.D.
  • Mississippian Culture 1,000 A.D. – 1,600 A.D.
early mississippi history1
Early Mississippi History
  • Paleo Indians were the first people in Mississippi
    • It is believed they crossed the land bridge connecting Alaska and Russia
  • Mounds are the most visible legacy of the Native Americans
    • Uses: religious temples, homes, and burials
  • Emerald Mound in Mississippi is the 2nd largest in the US
  • Most Native Americans live in clans
    • Clan – is a group of people who are related to each other
early native americans
Early Native Americans
  • Paleo
    • Ice Age
    • Earliest Americans crossed land bridge from Siberia into Alaska (and downward from there)
  • Archaic
    • Climate warmer and drier
    • Native Americans adjusted to climate and became less nomadic
  • Woodland
    • Highly organized societies in Mississippi and Ohio River valleys developed
    • Built burial mounds over tombs
    • Moundbuilders– lived alongside rivers and streams (see slides below)
    • Villages grew larger and tied together politically
    • Used bow and arrow
  • built religious buildings and the homes of chiefs on top of their flat, rectangular mounds
  • Choctaw connect their early history with a mound called NanihWaiya [Na’-naWai’-a] along the Pearl River in southeastern Winston County
mound sites in mississippi
Mound sites in Mississippi
  • Bear Creek
  • Pharr
  • Owl Creek
  • Bynum
  • Winterville
  • Jaketown
  • NanihWaiya
  • Pocahontas
  • Boyd
  • Emerald
  • Grand Village
mississippi tribes tribes in red indicate the larger tribes
Mississippi Tribes (tribes in red indicate the larger tribes)
  • CHICKASAW (north Mississippi)
  • TIOU
  • NATCHEZ (south Mississippi)
  • CHOCTAW (central Mississippi)
  • Connect early history with NanihWaiya (Winston County)
  • Had 25 to 30 villages and each person had a voice in government
  • Major crop: maize (corn)
  • One of three largest tribes
  • The only major visible tribe in Mississippi today
  • (Choctaw Code Talkers – Choctaw nation – not just Mississippi) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Y0mmVxxr3w
  • “Great Sun” chief lived on top of mound here
  • Major crop: maize (corn)
  • One of three largest tribes
  • http://www.wlbt.com/story/15279745/emerald-mound-in-natchez
  • Major crop: maize (corn)
  • One of three largest tribes
mississippian native americans
  • Smaller tribes: Choula, Pascagoula, Tunica, Biloxi
  • Larger tribes: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Natchez
  • Major crop: maize (corn)
  • Well organized and had developed ways of life that fit into


  • Each village included several clans (groups of related families)
    • Punished criminals
    • Protected individuals from violence
  • Exogamy: practice of marrying outside the clan
  • Polygyny: having more than one wife (occasionally,

a man in tribe had two wives)

  • Built villages close to streams/creeks
  • Religious beliefs: centered on sun and the sacred fires

(represented sun on Earth); believed in many spirits

associated with nature and animals



  • First to visit MS
  • (1539-1542) Hernando de Soto explored area searching for gold and silver
    • Attacked north of Mobile by Native Americans but NA did not know how to fight soldiers so were defeated
  • Introduced horses/hogs to America
  • MAIN OUTCOME: diseases spread from Spanish to Native Americans who had no immunity to them
  • Repeatedly attacked by Native Americans
    • Reached Gulf of Mexico and sailed to Mexico
    • Never returned


  • Visited MS after Spaniards
  • Originally settled in Quebec, Canada and explored from there
  • 1673: Louis Jolliet (trader) and Father Jacques Marquette (missionary) sailed down MS River and reached present-day site Rosedale, MS
    • Turned around when they realized that river flowed into Gulf and not Pacific Ocean
  • 1682: Rene Cavelier, de La Salle, Henri de Tonti, and Father Membre traveled down MS River and claimed region for France
  • From 1699 to 1763, the future state of Mississippi was a part of the French colony of Louisiana.
  • During these years, the French explored the region, established settlements and military outposts, engaged in political and economic relations with the area’s American Indians, and sought to establish a profitable economy
  • Fort Maurepas – first permanent settlement in MS


  • MS officially part of province West Florida (1763) (included southern halves of Alabama and MS as well as parts of Florida)
  • 1783 Treaty of Paris (between US and Great Britain…peace treaty of Revolutionary War): US controlled southern boundary at 31 degrees north latitude
  • Spain held territory south of that line (refused to give up Natchez District which was north of line)
    • Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney’s Treaty) in 1795 in which it recognized the 31st parallel as the boundary between Spanish Florida and the United States.


  • Spain, England, and France established colonial settlements in eastern North America
  • First European settlement in MS – Ocean Springs
  • Mississippi ruled first by French, then English, and finally Spain
  • Mississippi Territory - after centuries of control by several European powers, the land that would become Mississippi became a part of the United States at the close of the 18th century… April 7, 1798, Congress created the Mississippi Territory
mississippi territory
Mississippi Territory
  • Most Europeans living in the territory lived along the MS River
  • Natchez was the capital of the territory
  • By 1817 the Mississippi Territory applied for statehood
  • However the US Congress did not want to allow it to be a state because it was too large
    • As a result the split the territory
  • December 10, 1817 MS became the 20th state of the US
mississippi s climate1
Mississippi’s Climate
  • Climate – conditions of the atmosphere over a long period of time
  • Weather – conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time
  • Humid subtropical climate (long hot summers; short mild winters)
  • Average yearly temperature is 62 degrees
  • Average summer temperature is 80 degrees
  • Average winter temperature is 48 degrees
  • January is the coldest month
  • Receives about 55 inches of rainfall a year
  • Because of MS’s climate agriculture is important to its economy
    • Growing season
  • Tornadoes
    • Funnel shaped clouds that cause massive destruction
    • Smith County in MS and the state of MS are the most likely places in the nation to receive a tornado
    • MS has more deaths from tornadoes than any other state
    • Tornadoes are measured on the Fujita Scale
    • The weather channel now also uses Tor:con

TOR:CON Value Descriptions

8+ Very high probability of a tornado 
6 - High probability of a tornado
4 - Moderate chance of a tornado nearby, but hail and/or high wind gusts possible
2 - Low chance of a tornado, but hail and/or high wind gusts possible
0 - Near-zero chance of a tornado or a severe thunderstorm

  • Hurricanes
    • Storms that form in the Atlantic Ocean with winds of at least 74 mph – 155 mph +
    • They are measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale using numbers 1-5
      • Usually called category
    • There have been two major hurricanes in Mississippi
      • Camille 1969
      • Katrina 2005

Of Mississippi

1 delta
1. Delta
  • A flat, alluvial plain that runs along the banks of the MS River from Memphis to Vicksburg
  • The soil allows for the growth of large cotton crops
  • Farming in the 1800s was based on Sharecropping
2 loess hills
2. Loess Hills
  • Their economy is based on cattle, light manufacturing, and industry
3 red clay hills
3. Red Clay Hills
  • This area is ideal for crops especially cotton because there are few trees
  • Economy: trade, commerce, and industry
4 northeast highlands
4. Northeast Highlands
  • Woodall Mountain is the highest point in the state
5 piney woods
5. Piney Woods
  • This area was the center of the lumber and railroad industry at one time
    • As a result boom towns were created to provide for lumber and railroad companies
  • Hattiesburg and Laurel are two boom towns that are still successful today
6 gulf coast
6. Gulf Coast
  • MS has five barrier islands off the coast
    • 1. Horn Island
      • The largest
      • Used for biological weapons testing
    • 2. Cat Island
      • It got its name from the French who thought raccoons were cats
      • Used in WWII to train dogs for military service
      • Hurricane Katrina washed part of the island away
    • 3. Deer Island
        • Closest to the coast
        • It got its name because deer escaped to the island
      • 4. Ship Island
        • Hurricane Camille split the Island into two pieces
        • It is the only deep water harbor between the MS River and Mobile Bay
6 gulf coast continued
6. Gulf Coast Continued
  • 5. Petit Bois
    • French for Little Woods
  • The Mississippi Sound is the area of water between the barrier islands and the coast
  • The Gulf Coast was the first area to be explored and settled
  • Their main economic activities are fishing and tourism