Chapter 6 MOTIVATION: INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY
What is Motivation • Motivation is the willingness to make an effort toward accomplishment. • Organizational climate is the emotional weather within an organization that affects worker morale, attitudes, stress levels, and communication. • Morale is the overall mood of an individual or group, based on attitudes and satisfaction.
What is Motivation • Extrinsic rewards are intended to provide motivational incentives. • Salary • Bonuses • Promotions and praise • High grades in classes
What is Motivation • Intrinsic rewards are internal factors related to the value of work. • The amount of creativity allowed. • Degree of responsibility. • Satisfaction of helping others. • A work ethic. • A sense of self-identity, self-fulfillment, and self-worth. • The social value of work. • Social and community roles.
Need-Based Theories of Motivation • Assumptions of Maslow’s theory • Unsatisfied needs motivate or influence a person’s behavior. • Satisfied needs do not motivate the person’s behavior. • Needs are arranged by order of importance. • A need in the hierarchy will not be a motivator until those below it are already satisfied.
** Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ** • begins at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied first • then higher-level safety needs become active that must be satisfied • then belonging needs become active • beyond this lies esteem needs • beyond this lies the need to actualize one’s full unique potential Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
Need-Based Theories of Motivation • Alderfer’s ERG theory • Existence needs: Physical well-being as a human. • Relatedness needs: Part of esteem needs that are external or socially fulfilling. • Growth needs: Internal esteem needs. • Frustration-regression principle: People who fail to reach a higher need level become frustrated, regress to a lower need level, and stay there for some time.
Need-Based Theories of Motivation • McClelland’s Manifest Needs theory - All people have needs that motivate them in life and on the job. • Power needs - Desired by individuals who want to control and influence other people. • Affiliation needs - Occur in people who want to be accepted and liked by others. • Achievement needs - Occur in people who are goal oriented and take personal responsibility for achievements.
Need-Based Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Need-Based Theories of Motivation • Job enrichment as a motivator • Factors necessary for job enrichment to be effective: • Skill variety - The opportunity and ability to use different skills in one’s position at work. • Task identity - Worker’s perception of the meaningfulness of a job.
Need-Based Theories of Motivation • Task significance - Worker’s perception that the task directly affects other people’s work or lives. • Autonomy - Ability to act and make self decisions without undue interference from management. • Feedback- Allows individuals to know how well they are performing.
Need-Based Theories of Motivation Hackman-Oldham Job Enrichment model
Behavior-Based Theories of Motivation • Expectancy theory • Developed by Victor Vroom. • Explains human behavior in terms of people’s goals, choices, and the expectation that goals will be reached. • Its main concepts are expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
Expectancy - Efforts would result in better performance. Instrumentality - Something good (or bad) comes from an increase in effort. Valence - The value a person places on a reward. Behavior-Based Theories of Motivation
Reinforcement Theory and Behavior Modification • Reinforcement theory explains human behavior in terms of repetition. • Behavior that is rewarded enough times is repeated. • Behavior that repeatedly receives no reward will probably discontinue. • The process of changing behavior because of a reward, or a lack of reward, is called behavior modification.
Reinforcement Theory and Behavior Modification • Goal setting allows employees to set their own goals. • Employees’ commitment to goals increase by: • Participation in the goal-setting process. • Setting up challenging goals that are attainable, specific, and attractive. • Providing feedback. • Rewarding employees. • Reinforcement and values help improve the feelings of value and worth in employees.
Motivation and Self-Esteem • Self-esteem and job performance • Low self-esteem keeps an individual from making risky decisions when job calls for creativity in decision making. • Person with low self-esteem may perform at exactly the level where others expect performance to be, so as not to threaten others’ values.
Strategies for Success • Applying McClelland’s theory: Take a look at • Your needs. • What you want in life. • How the need areas apply in workplace. • Changing your behavior: • Change a behavior or bad habit. • Take small steps to reach your goal. • Find a small reward to motivate you. • Reward yourself to reinforce the desired behavior.