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INQAAHE CONFERENCE, 2009. New Approaches To Quality Assurance In The Changing World Of Higher Education. WS Wong, Executive Director, Joint Quality Review Committee, Hong Kong.

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inqaahe conference 2009


New Approaches To Quality Assurance In The Changing World Of Higher Education

WS Wong, Executive Director,

Joint Quality Review Committee,

Hong Kong

Different approaches to QA in Hong Kong, Mainland China & Taiwan, China: Background, impact, and reaction from the sector
external quality assurance
External Quality Assurance
  • Audit vs. accreditation
  • Self accrediting institution vs. non-self-accrediting institution
  • Binary system
  • Criteria of Review/ accreditation
  • Rise of Private Post Secondary education
  • Use of Institutional information as a quality assurance tool
two major types of external quality assurance
Two major types of External Quality Assurance


Audit / Review

  • Usually leads to outcome of approval / non-approval, or yes / no decision
  • Conducted on institution and/or programme
  • Conducted at all types of institutions
  • Usually does not lead to an approval/ non-approval decision (may result in recommendations and/or ranking )
  • More often conducted on institution basis
  • More often conducted at self accrediting institutions
self accreditation vs non self accreditation
Self Accreditation vs. Non Self Accreditation
  • The concept applies to some systems
    • U.K. (former CNAA)
    • Hong Kong
  • Self accreditation
    • Institutions judged to be mature in internal quality assurance
    • Not required to undergo external accreditation
  • Non self accreditation
    • Institutions / programme required to undergo external accreditation
    • Usually new institutions
accreditation or audit
Accreditation or Audit


Non-Self-accrediting institutions

Self-accrediting institutions

  • Australia

Self-accrediting institutions

Non –self-accrediting inst. –

Hong Kong

Non-self-accrediting institutions

Self-accrediting institutions

- former CNAA conducted


- QAAHE conducts Institutional audit

- auditedby AUQA

  • - accreditedby local accrediting


  • accredited by HKCAAVQ
  • audit by UGC
  • review by JQRC
  • U.S.

--Accreditation (institution-based) by regional accrediting bodies

-- Professional accreditation – by professional bodies

  • Mainland China – institution-based accreditation


  • Taiwan – department-based accreditation(系所評鑑)
outcome of audit accreditation
Outcome of Audit /Accreditation


  • US – institution based accreditation– outcomes range from “reaffirm accreditation”, to “warning”, to “probation”, or “terminate accreditation”
  • Mainland China – outcomes of Excellent, Good, Pass, Fail
  • Taiwan – outcomes of Pass, Under Observation, or Fail

(通過, 待觀察 ,未通過)

  • HK – HKCAAVQ – approval, conditional approval, non-approval

Audit/ review

  • U.K. – subject reviews – graded profile of 1 to 4

- academic audit - “degree of confidence”

  • Australia – AUQA – commendation, affirmation, recommendations
  • H.K.

-- UGC – QAC audits – commendations & recommendations

-- JQRC– recommendations, good practices ( IR )

methodology of external quality assurance in hong kong mainland china and taiwan china
Methodology of External Quality Assurance in Hong Kong, Mainland China and Taiwan, China

3 – stage review process

  • Self evaluation / report by SSPU
  • Peer review and site visit
  • Written report

This methodology is commonly used in reviews/ accreditation around the world


Criteria and Standards of

Accreditation / Review

audits reviews with a focus on process
Audits/ Reviews – with a focus on Process
  • UGC – QAC Quality Audit

“An audit of an institution’s Fitness for Purpose in teaching and learning. The audit examines whether an institution has procedures in place appropriate for its stated purpose, whether it pursues activities and applies resources to achieve those purposes”

Sampling of programmes – “ to seek evidence that ….quality assurance processes are in fact being implemented..”

review criteria areas of focus
Review Criteria: areas of focus

Areas of Focus eg. UGC QAC Audits :

11 areas of focus

  • Articulation of appropriate objectives
  • Management, planning and accountability
  • Programme development & approval process
  • Programme monitoring and review
  • Curriculum design
  • Programme delivery, resources, teaching mode
  • Experiential and other….learning
  • Assessment ……………etc.
purpose of jqrc institutional review
Purpose of JQRC Institutional Review
  • “The purpose of IR is to provide for a peer review of the institutional structures and processes adopted for ensuring the quality of Self-financed Sub-degree programmes, including structures and processes for ensuring the appropriate institutional support and environment.”
jqrc reviews include both focus on process standards
JQRC Reviews include both focus on Process & Standards
  • As an audit of quality assurance processes

---focused on Processes

  • As a review of Standards –

eg. QF levels, common descriptors of

AD/HD, other input/outcome indicators


Review Criteria

Qualitative type

Quantitative type

jqrc institutional review review criteria
JQRC Institutional Review Review Criteria
  • Issues Considered in Institutional Review

- Institutional Plans & Policies

- Approval authority & governance

- Programme approval, delivery and monitoring

- Institutional Support for Quality

- Indicators of Quality/ Quality Assurance

example of accreditation criteria mainland china quantitative type
Example of Accreditation Criteria (Mainland China)quantitative type
  • 具有高級職務教師占專任教師的比例(%) percentage of senior staff
  • 生均佔地面積 (㎡/生) area per student
  • 生均宿舍面積 (㎡/生) hostel area per student
  • 百名學生配教學用計算機台數 ratio of computer : students
  • 百名學生配多媒體教室和語音實驗室座位數(個)
  • 新增教學科研儀器設備所占比例(%) percentage of new equipment
  • 生均年進書量(冊) no. of new books per student

(Mainland China: criteria for Qualifying Assessment)


Example of Accreditation Criteria(Mainland China)quantitative & qualitative

  • 1.辦學指導思想 Mission
  • 2.師資隊伍 Staff establishment
  • 3.教學條件與利用Resources
  • 4.專業建設與改革 Subject disciplines
  • 5.教學管理 Management of teaching
  • 6.學風 Academic culture
  • 7.教學效果 Outcome of teaching
  • 特色項目 Outstanding characteristics

(Mainland China : Criteria for accreditation of higher education institutions)

private post secondary education
Private Post Secondary Education
  • Issue of competition – student fees main source of income
  • Complaints of inequity – binary system
  • Concerns of community about standards
  • Setting up a Qualifications Framework
  • Sensitivity about outcome of E.O.A.
  • Additional quality assurance measures
qualifications framework qf in hong kong
Qualifications Framework (QF) in Hong Kong
  • A unified system of qualifications for different types and levels of study purposes
  • Consists of 7 levels
    • eg. Degrees at level 5
  • Covers both degrees and sub-degrees and vocational qualifications
  • Upload onto QF is voluntary
additional q a measures for sfsd in hong kong
Additional Q.A. measures for SFSD in Hong Kong
  • Annual Return – release of admission information
  • Institutional and Programme information on website
information portal for accredited self financing post secondary programmes ipass
Information Portal for Accredited Self-financing Post-secondary Programmes (IPASS)
information portal for accredited self financing post secondary programmes ipass1
Information Portal for Accredited Self-financing Post-secondary Programmes (IPASS)
information portal for accredited self financing post secondary programmes ipass2
Information Portal for Accredited Self-financing Post-secondary Programmes (IPASS)

Thank You

Joint Quality Review Committee

Hong Kong