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COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO SUICIDE

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  1. COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO SUICIDE Center for Disease Control and PreventionFebruary 6, 2004 Aaron T. Beck, M.D. Gregory K. Brown, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania

  2. REVIEW OF STUDIES 1969-2004 I. CLASSIFICATION

  3. NIMH TASK FORCE 1969 ATTEMPTED SUICIDE • Degree of Intent • Degree of Medical Lethality SUICIDE IDEATION • Degree of Intent • Degree of Medical Lethality COMPLETED SUICIDE 1. Degree of Intent

  4. Definition of a Suicide Attempt “a potentially self-injurious behavior with a nonfatal outcome, for which there is evidence (either explicit or implicit) that the person intended at some (nonzero) level to kill himself/herself.” Source: O’Carroll, Berman, Maris, Moscicki, Tanney, & Silverman (1996)

  5. Intentional Self-Injury Behavior Suicide Intent Definite Suicide Attempt (1) Possible Suicide Attempt (2) Suicide Ideation Definite Possible Suicide Attempt (3) Possible Suicide Attempt (4) Mild Suicide Ideation None Definite Uncertain None Uncertain/ Potential Intentional Self-Injury Behavior without Suicide Intent (5) Possible/ Potential Self-Injury Behavior without Suicide Intent (6)

  6. II. ASSESSMENT

  7. INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT • MEDICAL LETHALITY (BIOLOGICAL DAMAGE) SCALE • SUICIDE INTENT SCALE (FOR ATTEMPTERS) • POST-SUICIDE SCALE a. Psychological Autopsy • SUICIDE IDEATION SCALE

  8. HOPELESNESS SCALE • SUICIDE IDEATION AT WORST POINT • WISH TO LIVE – WISH TO DIE SCALE • BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY – SUICIDE ITEM

  9. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY • DEPRESSION SCALE, SUICIDE INTENT SCALE, POST SUICIDE INTENT SCALE, AND HOPELESSNESS SCALE CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH MEDICAL LETHALITY

  10. HOPELESSNESS CORRELATES MORE STRONGLY THAN DOES DEPRESSION WITH LETHALITY (INCLUDING DEATH). • Hopelessness-intent correlation is high when depression is partialed out, but not vice-versa. • Hopelessness correlation persists across all demographic and diagnostic groups. • Hopelessness as a mediator between stressors and suicide.

  11. III. PREDICTION OF SUICIDE

  12. Risk Factors for Psychiatric Patients 1975-2000 • Sampled 6,891 psychiatric outpatients • Conducted National Death Index search • Identified 49 suicide cases • All patients received structured interviews and standardized assessment measures Source: Brown, Beck, Steer, & Grisham (2000)

  13. Predictive Validity Source: Brown, Beck, Steer, & Grisham (2000)

  14. Adjusted Hazard Ratios For Suicide with Psychiatric Outpatients

  15. Predictive Validity of Standardized Measures for Completed Suicide with Psychiatric Outpatients Odds Ratios 13.8 6.6 4.5 3.6 Measure: Cut-off Score: > 22 > 8 > 2 > 14

  16. Wish to Die vs. Wish to Live and Completed Suicide with Psychiatric Outpatients Percent Who Committed Suicide 3.2% .4% N = 21 of 637 N = 23 of 5131 Odds Ratio = 7.4 (95% CI: 4.0-13.4), p < .001

  17. SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS1970-19752000-2001

  18. TENTATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF ATTEMPTERS • “PERSONALITY DISORDER” VS “DEPRESSIVES” 1970-1975 • “BORDERLINES” VS “NON-BORDERLINE DEPRESSIVES” 2000-2001 a. BORDERLINES: - More repeats - High degree of reactivity - Low control b. CLASSICAL DEPRESSIVE: - Attempt related to steady progression of depression

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTEMPTERS1970-1975 PERSONALITY DISORDERS ATTEMPT WHEN DISTRESSED • “Self-medicate” with drugs to relieve distress • Often feel shame, guilt, hopeless, after drug and then attempt • Low tolerance for frustration or distress • Poor problem solving • Defective self-control • More reality problems

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF EPISODIC DEPRESSIVE ATTEMPTERS ATTEMPT SUICIDE AT DEPTH OF DEPRESSION (IF NOT RETARDED) • Profound hopelessness and generalized cognitive distortions • Suicide ideation only during episode

  21. Odds Ratios for Suicide with Suicide Attempters *p < .05

  22. Sensitivity of Reaction to Attempt for Completed Suicide Percent Who Committed Suicide 10% 5% 2.5% N = 9 of 176 N = 5 of 199 N = 10 of 101 Odds Ratio: 0.98 0.35 2.83

  23. Wish to Die vs. Wish to Live and Completed Suicide with Psychiatric Outpatients Percent Who Committed Suicide 3.2% .4% N = 23 of 5131 N = 21 of 637 Odds Ratio = 7.4 (95% CI: 4.0-13.4), p < .001

  24. IV: INTERVENTION

  25. Cognitive Therapyfor Suicide Attempters NIMH / CDC

  26. Study Design

  27. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria • Inclusion Criteria: • Patient must be evaluated at the ED within 48 hours of attempting suicide • Patient must complete a full baseline assessment within 3 weeks of making the attempt • Age 16 or older • Patient must have at least two verifiable contacts with telephone numbers • Must be able to provide informed consent • Exclusion Criteria: • A severe incapacitating medical disorder that would prevent participation in psychotherapy

  28. Recruitment 538 Patients Referred 186 were unable to be contacted 164 were excluded (not true attempters)  Of the 188 Eligible Patients Contacted 68 (36%) refused  120 Baselines Completed with 60 Patients assigned to CT+EC and 60 Patients assigned to EC

  29. Sample Description

  30. Age and Gender Mean Age 33.2 years SD = 9.7

  31. Ethnicity %

  32. Marital Status 7%

  33. Yearly Income 66% Unemployed or Disabled

  34. Method of Suicide Attempt CO2 Traffic 3% Hang 3% 6% Jump 13% Overdose 58% Cut 17%

  35. Type of Drug Used in Overdose

  36. Psychiatric Diagnoses • Mean Number of Axis I Diagnoses was 3 • Most Patients had Major Depression with Co-Morbid Substance Use Disorder

  37. Substance Use Diagnoses

  38. Participation Bias Consent Ethnicity No % (n=112) Yes % (n=180) OR CI (95%) 2.60 Caucasian (n = 89) 51 29 1.49, 4.54 African American (n = 151) 44 66 0.39 0.22, 0.68 Other (n = 13) 5 5 0.32, 3.64 1.09