Chapter 30: The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response AP World History II
The Great Depression • Causes: • War-induced inflation in Germany • Farmers around the world face overproduction • Many industries faced overproduction obstacles in the post-WWI world • Increased competition on the world market • Increased urbanization • Loans to repay loans… • Production exceeded demand in many colonial economies
The Great Depression • Governments were unable to quell the tide of economic mismanagement • Protectionism worsens crises • October, 1929: New York Stock Market Crash • Turns worldwide…quickly • Economies were based on speculation • Banks, creditors FAIL
The Great Depression • Investment recedes • Industrial production falls • Capital goods, then consumer goods • Falling employment • Lower wages • Underemployed and underpaid workers couldn’t buy goods whose production would stimulate job creation! • The depression…FED ITSELF!
The Great Depression • Soviet Union is untouched due to its developing SOCIALISM. • Soviet workers are put under tremendous hardship as they industrialize without foreign capital.
The Great Depression • Latin America • Stimulate new kinds of political action • Unable to stop depression, but set forth new stage of political evolution • Japan • Increased western suspicion • Promoted expansionism to Asian markets • Radical social and political experiments
The Great Depression • Western Governments fumble the political/economic response • Increased protectionism • Rising tariffs • Governments CUT spending • Confidence in governments/political processes deteriorates • People turn to radical ideals • Communism support increases worldwide • Increased class conflicts, political battles between left and right.
The Great Depression • TWO political choices… • An incapacitated parliamentary system Or • The overturning of a parliamentary system • French politics is thrown into disarray with the election of the POPULAR FRONT in 1936 (coalition of liberal, socialist, communists). • Conservatives stonewall radical social change
The Great Depression • The New Deal • Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s plan to bring rapid growth to the American Government. • Didn’t solve the depression, but restored faith in the political process. • America doesn’t fall into political paralysis
Nazism/Fascism • Post WWI Germany…a breeding ground for fascism • The Weimar Republic (German Govn’t after WWI) was unable to deal with Versailles Treaty terms • Parliamentary democracy was seen as weak, corrupt, and full of class conflict • Germans wanted a strong state ruled by a powerful leader who could revive Germany • The National Socialist, or NAZI party under Adolf Hitler would answer those needs.
Nazism/Fascism • Hitler • Need for unity • Weakness of parliamentary politics • The state was greater than the sum of individual interests • The leader guides the state • Promises a return to traditional ways • Firm stance against socialism and communism • Glorious foreign policy to undo Versailles Treaty • Constructed a TOTALITARIAN State
Nazism/Fascism • Hitler • Eliminated all opposition parties • Purged the government and military • Secret police: The Gestapo • Trade unions were replaced by government bodies
Nazism/Fascism • Hitler • Propaganda • Nationalism • Attack on Jewish minority • Anti-Semitism acts as a scapegoat for all of Germany’s problems • Blames them for personal issues ,and for excessive capitalism, causing the rise of socialism
Hitler • Goal: to recoup Germany’s losses from WWI and create an empire that would extend across Europe. • Suspended reparation payments • Withdrew from League of Nations • Brought military forces to the Rhineland in 1936 • 1938: Anschluss…union with Austria
Hitler • Western region of Czechoslovakia was turned over to Germany (Sudetenland). • Neville Chamberlain claims that his appeasement had won “peace in our time.” • Hitler takes over the rest of Czech… • September 1, 1939…Attack on Poland
Fascist Success • Fascism quickly spreads to • Hungary, Romania, and Austria • Italy and Mussolini are emboldened • 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia • Spain • Spanish civil war • Parliamentary Republic vs. Authoritarian military state • Authoritarians were under command of General Francisco Franco • German and Italian forces use Spain as a dress rehearsal for bombing civilians…Britain/France/US…vague support. • Franco’s forces won, and remain for 25 years
Latin America • Cash crops from late 19th century boom: • Coffee from Colombia, Brazil, and Costa Rica • Minerals from Bolivia, Chile, and Peru • Bananas from Ecuador and Central America • Sugar from Cuba. • Import Substitution Industrialization: WWI causes many Latin American countries to produce for themselves • Continued to suffer from lack of capital
Latin America • Liberal policies had failed to address growing class struggles, and poverty. • Growing conservative movement after WWI. • President of Mexico: Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940)-Redistributed 40 million acres of land, and ran a state sponsored Oil monopoly
Brazil • Getulio Vargas-President of Brazil after 1929 • Brazilian economy had collapsed • Centralized Federal govn’t programs • Authoritarian regime within the context of nationalism and economic reforms. Elimination of parties and groups who would oppose the new government • Vargas runs a corporatist government • Even though, he joins the allies in WWII, but gets arms • Opposition builds by 1945
Argentina • Juan D. Peron and Eva Duarte (Evita) emerged as the power in the Argentinean government • Forged alliance between workers, industrialists, and the military. • Supported the AXIS powers, and had many fascist sympathies. • Nationalized railroads, telephone companies • Populism (hard to manage all the interests!) • Peron turns more radical (attacking Catholic Church)…driven from power in 1955, then comes back in 1973!!!