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Chapter 23 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 23

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  1. Chapter 23 I can understand how the Great Depression affected the American People and changed the role of government The Great Depression and the New Deal

  2. Bullet Points p. 795 Read pgs. 770 - 775

  3. Ch 23, Sec 1Hoover and the Crash • I can understand how the economy collapsed after the stock market crash

  4. Remember?? • Mining, RR’s, clothing, agriculture all declining BUT • Stock prices rising • Buying on credit and margin

  5. Watch Out • This works as long as you can sell your stock and still pay the margin. • That means stock prices HAVE TO rise • Oct. 23, 1929, stock prices fell • Market crashed completely, Oct. 29, 1929 – BLACK TUESDAY

  6. CAUSES OF DEPRESSION • Stock market crash – investors lost $ • Overproduction • Farms go bankrupt, can’t pay loans • Banks fail – depositors lose $ • Business close • Foreign countries can’t pay debt

  7. Human Cost • Unemployment 1929-1933, 3% to 25% (25 mil) • City people hit hard • Salaries cut • Poverty • People lost homes

  8. Hoover • Thought all would work out • Urged local gov’t, business and charities to help • Finally – The Reconstruction Finance Corporation • Didn’t work

  9. Hoover • Didn’t work. • Hoovervilles • June 1932 Bonus march on Washington D.C.

  10. Read pgs. 776 - 781 Bullet Points p. 795

  11. Ch 23 Sec 2Roosevelt and the New Deal • I can understand how Franklin Roosevelt responded to the Great Depression

  12. F.D.R. • Elected President Nov. 1932, took office in 1933 • Created the New Deal • Became a popular President

  13. F.D.R. • Said in inaugural speech, March 4, 1933 “THE ONLY THING WE HAVE TO FEAR IS FEAR ITSELF”

  14. F.D.R. • Closed banks for 4 days • Got Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act on March 9, 1933 • Talked on Radio, Fireside chats

  15. F.D.R. GOALS • Relief for jobless • Economic recovery • Reforms to prevent repeats

  16. JOBS GOVERNMENT AGENCIES • F.E.R.A. – Financial help for unemployed • C.C.C. – hired jobless men for conservation projects • W.P.A. – Hired people to build government projects

  17. Economic Recovery • N.R.A. – Stabilize prices, increase employment • P.W.A. – hired people for government projects • T.V.A. – build dams

  18. REFORMS • F.D.I.C. • Companies must report honestly about stock • Federal agencies to enforce rules

  19. Obstacles • Supreme Court – Ruled some reforms unconstitutional SOLUTION • Roosevelt tried to increase court members and appoint people who agreed with him

  20. Outcome • Congress said NO! ?? – Does the Constitution say how many members on Court • NO!! But Congress disagreed • What does this say about FDR?

  21. Outcome • Roosevelt eventually appointed 8 members during his 4 terms

  22. Critics • Huey Long – Democrat Louisiana - Take from the rich and give to the poor

  23. Critics • Francis Townsend – Gov’t pensions. Every retired person gets $200 per month • - Did not pass but led to Social Security

  24. Critics • Fr. Charles Coughlin – Gov’t should take over banks

  25. What do you think? • Long – • Townsend - • Coughlin -

  26. Bullet Points p. 795 Read pgs. 782 - 787

  27. Ch 23 Sec 3Life in the Great Depression • I can understand how the Great Depression affected daily life

  28. Life during Depression - Women • Women – Secretaries, Teachers. What problems could they face?

  29. An active First Lady • Who is the First Lady? • Eleanor Roosevelt transformed job • Became an activist -Eyes and ears of President - Speeches on radio, wrote newspaper articles - Championed women’s rights

  30. African Americans • Cotton prices down • African Americans lost jobs • Moved to cities in south • Whites held jobs • 50% unemployment

  31. The Great Migration - Continued • Blacks moved North • Blacks found few jobs

  32. F.D.R. – Mixed record • African Americans supported F.D.R. • Appointed 100 African Americans to gov’t jobs • Unofficial black cabinet – Advised F.D.R. on African American issues

  33. F.D.R. Mixed Record • Did not support Federal Anti-Lynching law – WHY? - Afraid of losing white Southern Senators vote on New Deal programs • Did little to support minority rights including Mexicans (now being deported)

  34. Symbolism • African American singer, Marian Anderson denied opportunity to sing at D.A.R. Hall – 1939 • Eleanor Roosevelt quit D.A.R. • Arranged performance At Lincoln Memorial – Easter – 75,00 attended