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Psy1306 Language and Thought. Lectures 3 Color Language and Lateralization. Electromagnetic Spectrum. How many color gradations can the human eye distinguish?. 1. about 200 hues. 2. about 500 levels of brightness. 3. About 20 levels of saturation.

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psy1306 language and thought

Psy1306 Language and Thought

Lectures 3

Color

Language and Lateralization

hue saturation brightness

How many color gradations can the human eye distinguish?

1. about 200 hues

2. about 500 levels of brightness

3. About 20 levels of saturation

200 х 500 х 20 = 2,000,000 color gradations

Hue, Saturation, Brightness
slide5

Bipolar

cell

Ganglion

cell

Light

entering

Amacrine

cell

Horizontal

cell

Retina

Photoreceptor

layer

To brain

via optic

nerve

Rod

Cone

slide6

Trichromatic Theory

    • red-, green-, blue-sensitive cones
  • Opponent-process Theory
    • red-green, blue-yellow, black-white opponent pairs
trichromatic cones
Trichromatic – Cones
  • Cones
  • Short (Blue)
  • Medium (Green)
  • Long (Red)
two positions
Two Positions
  • Universalists
    • perceptual categories are “hardwired” into the visual system, and language categories reflect these discontinuities in perceptual color space
  • Relativists
    • perceptual categories are constructed through language
berlin kay 1969

Berlin & Kay (1969)

Berlin & Kay (1969)
  • Is color naming across languages largely a matter of arbitrary linguistic convention?
    • If YES: support relativist position
    • If NO: support universalist position
results

Berlin & Kay (1969)

Results
  • Hierarchy: Evolution by Stages

purplepinkorangegray

whiteblack

greenyellow

<

red

<

<

blue

<

brown

<

  • Color naming across languages
  • is not so arbitrary
criticisms

Berlin & Kay (1969)

Criticisms
  • Small # of languages
    • 17 of 20 are of industrial Societies.
    • Other researchers: color naming vastly different in non-industrial societies.
  • Small # of subjects per language
    • Furthermore, subjects were not living in their native land (living in SF area instead).
kay regier 2003

Kay & Regier (2003)

Kay & Regier (2003)
  • Data collected in situ from 110 unwritten languages
  • Languages spoken in small-scale, non-industrialized societies
  • Average of 24 native speakers per language
  • 330 color chips named, one at a time
  • Asked to tell which is the best example of their basic color terms
slide22

Kay & Regier (2003)

Kay & Regier (2003)

  • Questions
    • Do color terms from different languages cluster together in color space to a degree greater than chance?
    • Do color terms from unwritten languages of non-industrialized societies fall near color terms from written languages of industrialized societies?
slide23

Kay & Regier (2003)

“Certain privileged points in color space appear to anchor the color naming systems of the world’s systems, viewed as a statistical aggregate.”

(Kay & Regier, 2003)

how would you answer b k s q

Berlin & Kay (1969)

How would you answer B&K’s Q?
  • Is color naming across languages largely a matter of arbitrary linguistic convention?
    • If YES: support relativist position
    • If NO: support universalist position
what is the prelinguistic state
What is the prelinguistic state?
  • Do infants show categorical perception of colors like adults?
bornstein kessen weisskopf 1976

Bornstein, Kessen, & Weisskopf (1976)

Bornstein, Kessen, & Weisskopf (1976)
  • Habituate 4-month-infants to a color then test infants either within- or between-category color.
  • What happened?
franklin davies 2004

Franklin & Davies (2004)

Franklin & Davies (2004)

Color categories

  • blue-green
  • blue-purple
  • pink-red

Design

2 Category (between/within) x 2 Perceptual Distance (near/far)

summary of colors tested
Summary of colors tested
  • Blue vs. Green
  • Green vs. Yellow
  • Yellow vs. Red
  • Red vs. Pink
  • Blue vs. Purple
  • Infants show
  • Categorical Perception
categorical perception boundary difference shift
Categorical Perceptionboundary difference (shift)

Grellow

Yellow

X

X

Yeen

Green

Language A

Language B

categorical perception boundary difference absence presence

Kay & Kempton (1984)

Categorical Perceptionboundary difference (absence/presence)

Blue

X

X

X

Grue

Y

Green

Language A (English)

Language B (Tamahara)

choice of stimuli35

Kay & Kempton (1984)

Choice of Stimuli

http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/wcs/data/cnum-maps/WCS-Munsell-chart.html

discussion

Kay & Kempton (1984)

Discussion
  • What do you make of the 2 Experiments? How do they address the role of language on color judgment?
  • Would you have asked a different question or done a different experiment?
discussion40

Kay & Kempton (1984)

Discussion
  • What is the Whorfian Hypothesis?
  • What is the degree of the effect?
  • Application to real life?
next class
Next class
  • Searching for subtle evidence by capitalizing on brain studies…
contralateral control as opposed to ipsilateral control

Language in the brain

Contralateral Control(as opposed to ipsilateral control)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

  • 1860s: investigators apply electric currents to brains of anesthetized animals and made an interesting discovery.

Right Brain

Left Brain

Left Body

Right Body

the wada test 1949

Language in the brain

The Wada Test (1949)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Juhn A. Wada

rasmussen milner 1977

Language in the brain

Rasmussen & Milner (1977)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

(Normal Patients undergoing Wada Test)

hemispheres visual field

Language in the brain

Hemispheres & Visual Field

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Right Visual Field

Left Visual Field

Right Brain

Left Brain

slide46

Language in the brain

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Information Flow is

as follows:

LVF  RH  LH

RVF  LH  RH

language in left hemisphere

Language in the brain

Language in Left Hemisphere

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Visually Flashed Words:

(50 millisecond)

More Accurate on Right Visual Field

language in left hemisphere48

Language in the brain

Language in Left Hemisphere

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

More accurate with Right Ear

slide49

Language in the brain

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

kimura 1973

Language in the brain

Kimura (1973)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

split brain research sperry gazzaniga etc

Language in the brain

Split-Brain Research(Sperry, Gazzaniga, etc.)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

  • Surgically Lesioned Corpus Callosum
    • “cure” for epilepsy
  • Post-surgery:
    • Normal Behavior
testing split brain patient

Language in the brain

Testing Split-Brain Patient

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

General Testing Setup.

name that object picture in rvf

Language in the brain

Name that object (picture in RVF)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Patient says: “Spoon!”

slide55

Language in the brain

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Name that object(picture in LVF)

Patient: (says nothing)

Researcher: “Did you see any thing?”

Patient: “Nope.”

slide56

Language in the brain

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Right Visual Field

Left Visual Field

Right Brain

Left Brain

Left Body

Right Body

pick up the object displayed

Language in the brain

Right Hand: Pulls out Spoon!

Left Hand does nothing

Pick up the object displayed

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

slide58

Language in the brain

Left Hand: Pulls out Spoon!

Right hand does nothing

Pick up the object displayed

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

lh rationalizing behavior of rh

Language in the brain

LH rationalizing behavior of RH

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

typical split brain patient

Language in the brain

Typical Split Brain Patient

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

  • Left Brain:
    • Normal Language Use
        • Speaking and listening
    • No easily detectable deficits.
  • Right Brain:
    • Some rudimentary word recognition.
split brain patient and dichotic listening

Language in the brain

Split-brain patient and Dichotic Listening

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

What does the patient report hearing in all three cases?

a man with two brains

Language in the brain

A Man with Two Brains

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

  • http://www.pbs.org/perl/media.cgir?t=w&f=virage/scientific/pbssaf703_220k.asf&s=173000&e=780266

With communication between his left and right hemispheres severed, a patient teaches doctors about the division of labor within the brain.

american sign language asl

Language in the brain

American Sign Language (ASL)

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

  • Deaf Signers with Left Hemisphere Damage:
    • Language Deficit. Aphasic.
  • Deaf Signers with Right Hemisphere Damage:
    • Visio-Spatial Deficits.
    • No easily detectable language deficits.
  • Left Hemisphere implicated in Language

Poizner, Klima, & Bellugi (1987)

native asl signers rh vs lh damage

Language in the brain

Native ASL Signers – RH vs. LH damage

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Hickok et al. (1998)

native asl signers rh vs lh damage65

Language in the brain

Comparisons on:

Production

Comprehension

Phrase repetition Test

Naming Test

Rhyming Test

Paraphasias/min (#speech error/min)

Native ASL Signers – RH vs. LH damage

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Hickok et al. (1996)

functions of the hemispheres

Language in the brain

Left Hemisphere

Rapid language processing

Lexical, syntactic processing

Phonemic processing

Right Hemisphere

Higher level processing

Discourse processing

Prosodic information

Functions of the Hemispheres

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

slide67

Language in the brain

Lateralization: Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Summary: Brain and modularity

  • Patient data provide evidence that there are regions of the brain associated with language processing
  • Data from normals corroborate brain damage data
  • The evidence is suggestive of brain modularity – i.e. specialized areas for processing language.
when does lateralization emerge

Language in the brain

When does lateralization emerge?

Lateralization: Emergence

  • Quickly within the first few years of life.
    • Dichotic listening task (Kimura,1963):
      • 4-6 yr-olds show right-ear advantage
    • EEG/ERP data (Neville et al.)
      • 4-6 yr-olds
    • High-amplitude sucking (Bertoncini et al. 1989):
      • Neonates (4-day-olds)
        • Right-ear advantage for syllable change
        • Left-ear advantage for musical tone change
when does lateralization emerge69

Language in the brain

http://www.pbs.org/perl/media.cgir?t=w&f=virage/scientific/pbssaf703_220k.asf&s=2677776&e=3334066

Videoclip touches upon:

EEG/ERP technology

Lateralization emergence

Critical Period in Second Language Acquisition

Issues of Plasticity

Competition of processes

When does lateralization emerge?

Lateralization: Emergence