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  1. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks CSI 5148 Andres Solis Montero

  2. Introduction Overview Sink Mobility Problem Solutions References Questions • Is a fundamental task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), here its function is to send sensor • readings from sources to sinks nodes. Data Gathering Introduction Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 1/23

  3. Introduction Overview Sink Mobility Problem Solutions References Questions • Sensors near the sink deplete their battery power faster than those far apart due to the heavy traffic of relaying messages. Energy Consumption - When a sink’s neighbours deplete their battery power, farther away nodes may still have more than 90% of their initial energy - Problem Ingelrestet al., (2004) Luo and Hubaux, (2005) Olariu and Stojmenovic, (2006) Vinczeet al., (2007) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 2/23

  4. Introduction Overview Sink Mobility Problem Solutions References Questions • Sink isolation, network failure. • Energy holes, degraded network performance. • Manually replace/rechargesensor batteries is ofteninfeasible. Energy Consumption Problem It is desired to minimize and balance energy usage among sensors. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 3/23

  5. Introduction Overview Sink Mobility Problem Solutions References Power Aware Non Uniform Questions Sink Mobility • Longer network life time. • Balances energy consumption. Power-aware Routing Solutions ? Limitation:Critical nodes are not avoidable. Singh et al., (1998) Stojmenovic and Lin, (2001) Buragohain et al., (2005) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 4/23

  6. Introduction Overview Sink Mobility Problem Solutions References Power Aware Non Uniform Questions Sink Mobility • Mitigates message relay load. • Increases network lifetime. No uniform node distribution Solutions ? Limitation:Reduces coverage which is the basis of any sensor network. Stojmenovic et al., (2005) Lian et al., (2006) Wu et al., (2008). Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 5/23

  7. Introduction Overview Sink Mobility Problem Solutions References Power Aware Non Uniform Questions Sink Mobility • Improves network lifetime, without bringing negative impacts mentioned in the other approaches. Sink Mobility • Network coverage preserved. • There are no ‘critical’ nodes around a sink due to its mobility. Solutions ? Akkaya et al., (2005); Luo and Hubaux, (2005); Vincze et al., (2007); Banerjee et al., (2008); Basagni et al., (2008); Hashish and Karmouch, (2008); Friedmann and Boukhatem, (2009) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 6/23

  8. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Real Time WSN References Questions Sink Mobility Data Gathering in delay-tolerant WSN Data Gathering in real-time WSN • Habitat monitoring. • Water quality Monitoring. • Battlefield surveillance. • Forest fire detection. Taxonomy Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 7/23

  9. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Direct Contact References Rendezvous based Real Time WSN Questions Delay Tolerant WSN approaches Direct Contact Data Collection Rendezvous based Data Collection Stochastic TSP Label Covering Fixed Track Tree-Based Clustering Taxonomy Sink Tours RP Selection Methods Sinks visit (possibly at slow speed) all data sources and obtain data directly from them. Sinks may visit only a few selected rendezvous points (RPs). Kansalet al. (2004) Xing et al. (2008), (2007) Shah et al. (2003); Gu et al. (2005); Nesamony et al. (2007); Sugihara and Gupta. (2008). Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 8/23

  10. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Direct Contact References Rendezvousbased Real Time WSN Questions • Eliminates the message relay overhead of sensors, and thus optimizes their energy savings. • Limitation: • It has a large data collection latency for slow moving sinks. • Concern: • Find best sink trajectory that covers all sensors minimizing data collection delay. Delay Tolerant WSN approaches Direct Contact Data Collection Stochastic TSP Label Covering Direct Contact data Collection Sink Tours Sinks visit (possibly at slow speed) all data sources and obtain data directly from them. Shah et al. (2003); Gu et al. (2005); Nesamony et al. (2007); Sugihara and Gupta. (2008). Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 9/23

  11. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Direct Contact References Rendezvousbased Real Time WSN Questions • Each sensor buffers their measurements and • waits for a sink (beacon). • Sinks move randomly sending beacons and • collect data from encountered sensors in • communication range. • Data is carried by the sink to access point. Stochastic Direct Contact data collection Shah et al. (2003); • Limitations: • It has a large data collection latency for • slow moving sinks. • Constant channel monitoring (beacons) is energy expensive. If a sink moves along a regular path, sensors can predict their arrival after learning their pattern. Chakrabarti et al. (2003); Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 10/23

  12. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Direct Contact References Rendezvousbased Real Time WSN Questions • Equivalent NP- complete Travel Salesman Problem. • Traveling Salesman with Neighbourhood (TSPN) TSP Tour for data collection All locations are known. First determine visiting order of the disks. TSP order of the disks. Constrains may apply (energy level, buffer overflow...). For each disk, a representative points is selected. (center, closest point to starting point, random...) Algorithm computes the optimum path according the order. B = min(|AB|+|BC|) adjacent edges. Direct Contact data collection • Limitations: • It has a large data collection latency for slow moving sinks. • TSP – NP complete problem. Nesamony et al. (2006, 2007); Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 11/23

  13. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Direct Contact References Rendezvousbased Real Time WSN Questions • All locations are known. No need to visit all nodes once. • Complete graph is made with sensors and • initial positions. • Edges have a cost (Euclidean distance) and • labels of all nodes (transmission radius) they • intersect. • Minimum set of edges that can collect data from • all nodes. • Proved to have better performance than TSP solutions • with large transmission radius. Label-covering tour data collection Direct Contact data collection Sugihara and Gupta (2007, 2008) • Limitations: • It has a large data collection latency for slow moving sinks. • Minimum label problem is NP hard. • No restrictions are applied to the algorithm (energy level, buffer overflow...). Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 12/23

  14. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN DirectContact References Rendezvous based Real Time WSN Questions • Avoids long travel distances. • Reduces time and data collection latency. • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of multi hop data communication. • Concern: • Trade-off of energy consumption and time delay. Delay Tolerant WSN approaches Rendezvous based Data Collection Fixed Track Tree-Based Clustering Rendezvous based data Collection RP Selection Methods Sinks may visit only a few selected rendezvous points (RPs). Kansalet al. (2004) Xing et al. (2008), (2007) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 13/23

  15. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN DirectContact References Rendezvous based Real Time WSN Questions • Sink moves through straight lines (fixed track) • broadcasting beacon messages initially. • Sensors build a MST using hop counts. Their resend the min count received. • The roots are the RPs. • Sink motion can be slow or temporarily stop in critical data delivery places. • Each sensor belongs to only one tree. RP selection by fixed Track. Rendezvous based data Collection • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of multihop • data communication. • Find better fixed track and MST configuration to balance time and message load. Kansalet al. (2004) Xing et al. (2008), (2007) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 14/23

  16. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN DirectContact References Rendezvous based Real Time WSN Questions • Greedy algorithm with constrained Reporting Tree pathrooted at BS. • Need to find a sub-path where the maximum • distance traveled by the sink is L. • (max L that can travel within D Time). • Each edge has a weight based on their children. • Edges are sorted according to their weight. • The biggest values <= L are selected. • RPs are at any point of the final path. RP selection by Reporting Tree Rendezvous based data Collection • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of multi hop data communication. • Configuration L input might yield different results. Xing et al. (2008), (2007) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 15/23

  17. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN DirectContact References Rendezvous based Real Time WSN Questions • Framework integrating several algorithms. • K-hop clusters are constructed. • Each cluster is a minimum hop tree rooted at its • Navigation Agent (NA) with a depth of at least • K+1 and at most 2k+1. • A TSP tour of NA is used for the sink. They use • min hop links between clusters. • Info is collected 1-hop of the NA (data replication,...) RP selection by Clustering Rendezvous based data Collection • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of multi hop data communication. • Configuration k input might yield different results. • k=1 direct contact data collection. • k=kmax(n : network size) static sink scenario. Rao and Biswas (2008) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 16/23

  18. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Real Time WSN References Sink Relocation Questions Data Dissemination Real Time WSN approaches Sink Relocation strategies Data Dissemination To mobile sinks Cluster based Brute Force MILP Tree based Learning-based Taxonomy Request zone Periphery Tree-based Event-Driven Multi hop message relay with optimal sink relocation and routing algorithms for data dissemination to mobile sinks. Wu and Chen (2007), Kim et al. (2003) Baruah et al. (2004) , Ammari and Das (2005) Banerjee et al. (2008), Bi et al. (2007), Vincze et al. (2007), Bogdanov et al., 2004. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 17/23

  19. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Real Time WSN References Sink Relocation Questions Data Dissemination • Concern: • Reduce multi hop message relay with • optimal sink relocation. Real Time WSN approaches Sink Relocation strategies • Sinks move through energy-intense areas rather than energy-sparse areas. Cluster based Brute Force MILP Taxonomy Periphery Tree-based Event-Driven • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of • multi hop data communication. • Optimal multi sink placement is NP-Complete problem. Banerjee et al. (2008), Bi et al. (2007), Vincze et al. (2007), Bogdanov et al., 2004. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 18/23

  20. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Real Time WSN References Sink Relocation Questions Data Dissemination • Sinks have a global view of the network and • run a centralized algorithm. Brute Force approach • Algorithm runs periodically to check if sinks • should be relocated. • Sink relocation takes place if and only if the new sink position reduces total cost. Sink Relocation • Each edge is assigned a weight based on • the remaining energy and cost of the • message transmitting. • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of • multi-hop data communication. • Optimal positions NP-Complete. Friedmann and Boukhatem (2009) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 19/23

  21. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Real Time WSN References Sink Relocation Questions Data Dissemination • It is the problem of data routing to sinks in • the presence of sink mobility. Data Dissemination to mobile sinks Data Dissemination To mobile sinks • Data dissemination with mobile sinks is a • combined problem of LOCATION and ROUTING. Tree based Learning-based Taxonomy • Concern: • Fast and correct delivery with trade-off energy consumption. Request zone Wu and Chen (2007), Kim et al. (2003) Baruah et al. (2004) , Ammari and Das (2005) • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of • multi-hop data communication and sink reposition. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 20/23

  22. Introduction Taxonomy SinkMobility Delay Tolerant WSN Real Time WSN References Sink Relocation Questions Data Dissemination • Sink will move from a1 to a2. • Sink advertises by flooding with • positions a1 and a2 before it • starts moving. Request Zone • Each sensor computes the circle with diameter d1 and d2. Then it computes the sensors in its transmission area towards c; center of the circle with D=|a1,a2|. Data Dissemination • Directional routing is used from the sensor to the center of the circle. • Limitation: • More energy consumption because of • multi hop data communication and sink reposition. • Needs complete coverage of nodes, routing to c is not the expected sink position and directional routing could be a problem. Ammari and Das (2005) Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 21/23

  23. Introduction Sink Mobility References Questions Ivan Stojmenovic, Amiya Nayak. “Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks: Algorithms and Protocols for Scalable Coordination and Data Communication” Wiley-Intercience, Chapter 6, pp. 153- 181. 2009. References Shah RC, Roy S, Jain S, Brunette W. “Data MULEs: modeling and analysis of a three-tier architecture for sparse sensor networks”. Ad Hoc Netw 2003;1(2–3):215–233. Chakrabarti A, Sabharwal A, Aazhang B. “Using predictable observer mobility for power efficient design of sensor networks”. Proceedings of the 2nd InternationalWorkshop on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), Volume 2634 of LNCS; 2003. pp. 129–145. Nesamony S, Vairamuthu MK, Orlowska ME, Sadiq SW. “On optimal route computation of mobile sink in a wireless sensor network”. Technical Report 465. ITEE, University of Queensland; 2006. Sugihara R, Gupta RK. “Improving the data delivery latency in sensor networks with controlled mobility”. Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing inSensor Systems (DCOSS), Volume 5067 of LNCS; 2008. pp. 386–399. Kansal A, Somasundara AA, Jea DD, Srivastava MB, Estrin D. “Intelligent fluid infrastructure for embedded networks”. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys); 2004. pp. 111–124. Xing G, Wang T, Jia W, Li M. “Rendezvous design algorithms for wireless sensor networks with a mobile base station”. Proceedings of the 9th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc); 2008. pp. 231–239. Xing G, Wang T, Xie Z, Jia W. “Rendezvous planning in mobility-assisted wireless sensor networks”. Proceedings of the 28th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS); 2007.pp. 311–320. Rao J, Biswas S. “Joint routing and navigation protocols for data harvesting in sensor networks”. Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS); 2008. pp. 143–152. Friedmann L, Boukhatem L. “Efficient multi-sink relocation in wireless sensor network”. Ad Hoc & SensWirelNetw 2009. To appear. Ammari HM, Das SK. “Data dissemination to mobile sinks in wireless sensor networks: an information theoretic approach”. Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS); 2005. pp. 314–321. Thanks for Listening... Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 22/23

  24. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions In Delay Tolerant WSNs, direct data collection approaches try to minimize the trip made by the sink visiting all sensors in the network. Knowing a min TSP tour of ‘1,2,3,4’ ; construct a minimal path using the TSPN (Travel Salesman Problem with Neighbourhood) algorithm. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  25. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  26. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  27. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 1/Y

  28. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero 1/Y

  29. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  30. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  31. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  32. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  33. Introduction Question 1 Question 1 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >> Direct Data Collection >> TSP tour . Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  34. Introduction Question 1 Question 2 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >>Direct Data Collection >> Label-covering tour. Questions Having the same sensors and sink configuration but this time without a minimal TSP tour; would it be possible to give the shortest path using a Label-covering tour approach? If yes, give the shortest path using such an algorithm. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  35. Introduction Question 1 Question 2 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >>Direct Data Collection >> Label-covering tour. Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  36. Introduction Question 1 Question 2 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >>Direct Data Collection >> Label-covering tour. Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  37. Introduction Question 1 Question 2 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Delay Tolerant WSN >>Direct Data Collection >> Label-covering tour. Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  38. Introduction Question 1 Question 3 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Real Time WSN >> Data Dissemination >> Request Zone Questions Data dissemination to mobile sinks deals with the problem of correctly routing data to sinks. In the Request Zone algorithm, the sink, before it starts moving, will flood its starting and ending position. Eventually, all nodes will have that information and they will route messages to point c. (center of the circle formed by the diameter determined by |s,e|). The routing solution given by this algorithm will fail in the following scenario starting from the gray node. Why? Is it possible to correct the data delivery starting from the gray sensor using the routing algorithm studied in class? Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  39. Introduction Question 1 Question 3 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Real Time WSN >> Data Dissemination >> Request Zone Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  40. Introduction Question 1 Question 3 Sink Mobility Question 2 Question 3 References Real Time WSN >> Data Dissemination >> Request Zone Questions Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Andres Solis Montero

  41. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks THANKS !! GRACIAS!! Andres Solis Montero