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Dar al-Islam

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  1. Dar al-Islam literally = House of Islam commonly refers to lands heavily influenced by Islam or where Muslims can practice freely along with China, Dar al-Islam drives the history of the Post-Classical Era

  2. Key Terms • Arab = • originally a resident of the Arabian Peninsula, then a speaker of Arabic • Bedouin = • nomads of the Arabian Peninsula • Islam = “submission” • monotheistic religion that grew out of Christianity & teaching of Muhammad • Muslim = “one who submits” • person who practices Islam

  3. Nomadic Life in the Pre-Islamic Arab World

  4. Bedouins • Center of Arab culture • Tribal • Filled w/ rivalry & competition • Animistic polytheism • On periphery of civilization

  5. Towns & Trade • Bedouin herders trade with oasis towns

  6. Examples

  7. Examples

  8. Examples

  9. The Rise of Islam

  10. Judaism Muhammad* Jesus* Abraham David Moses* Christianity Islam

  11. Judaism – a primer • 1 god = Yahweh • Prophets: 1st= Abraham, founder= Moses • Religion of practice • Belief in covenant • Text = Torah (Old Testament of Bible) • No clear hierarchy in leadership

  12. Christianity – a primer • 1 god = Yahweh • Prophets: 1st= Abraham, founder= Jesus • Religion of faith • Strong belief in missionary work • Text = Bible - Old Testament & New Testament (life of Jesus) • Hierarchical leadership (Pope in Rome, Patriarch in Constantinople)

  13. Islam – a primer • 1 god = Allah • Prophets: 1st= Abraham, founder= Muhammad • Religion of faith & practice • Strong belief in missionary work • Text = Quran – believed to be exact word of god • No clear hierarchy

  14. Islam 5 Pillars most basic customs that support Islam • Profession of Faith • There is only 1 god, Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger

  15. Gulzar

  16. Zoomorphic

  17. Tughra

  18. Bowl w/ Foliated Calligraphy

  19. Qur'an

  20. Rare illustrated version of the “Life of the Prophet”

  21. Marble Wall in Afghanistan

  22. Practices: 5 Pillars • Prayer • Pray 5 times daily at prescribed times (dawn, noon, afternoon, evening, after sundown) • Face Mecca

  23. The Haram (Great Mosque)

  24. Practices: 5 Pillars • Charity • systematic giving of 2.5% of one's wealtheach year to benefit the poor

  25. Great Mosque of Qairawwan

  26. Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil

  27. Practices: 5 Pillars • Fasting • Fast during the holy month of Ramadan

  28. Practices: 5 Pillars • Pilgrimage (Hajj) • the journey to holy city of Mecca that every adult Muslim must undertake at least once

  29. Significance of 5 Pillars on Islam • Unity, equality, common experience • Travel, trade, exchange • Building of universities & centers of learning • Study of astronomy

  30. Comparing Monotheistic Religions Using World Civilization doc reader: • Compare beliefs/attitudes toward god & practices. • Judaism & Old Testament (pg. 11) • Christianity & New Testament (pg. 101) • Islam & Koran (pg. 114)

  31. Crisis After Muhammad’s Death Faced Two Main Problems: • Arabic tribes leave Muslim community • Who should succeed Muhammad leadership? Caliph(successor, deputy): political & religious leader Results: • Dispute b/t Sunni & Shia

  32. Sunni • Feel that devout Muslims can be caliphs even if not related to Muhammad • Make up approximately 80% of world Muslim population today • Supported Abu Bakr • Friend of Muhammad's; early convert to Islam • Becomes 1st caliph

  33. Shi'a • Only accepted caliphs who were direct descendants of Muhammad • Supported Ali • Muhammad’s cousin & son-in-law • Believe rule of first three caliphs was illegitimate

  34. Crisis After Muhammad’s Death Result of dispute b/t Sunni & Shia: • Conflict allows the sunni Umayyad clan to rise to power

  35. Umayyad Empire -Arab -Conquerors

  36. Timeline – pt1 • 597 = Byzantine & Persian Wars • 613 = Muhammad begins preaching • 632-661 = Early Caliphs • 661-750 = Umayyad Empire

  37. Umayyad Empire stretched from Spain to central Asia Administrative Reforms • Caliph appointed governors to rule far-flung provinces • Governors ruled from strong garrison towns • Spoils from victories helped finance Umayyad government • Bureaucracy & military dominated by Muslim Arab elite

  38. Instituted a three-level tax system: 1) Muslim Arabs: • approx 4% of population • not taxed 2) Muslim converts (non-Arab): • approx 6% of population, largest land owners • paid land tax 3) Non-Muslims & “People of the Book”: • approx 90% of population • paid land tax • paid jizya (head tax) for security • subject to own laws & courts