dar al islam n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Dar al-Islam PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Dar al-Islam

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 72

Dar al-Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 168 Views
  • Uploaded on

Dar al-Islam. literally = House of Islam commonly refers to lands heavily influenced by Islam or where Muslims can practice freely along with China, Dar al-Islam drives the history of the Post-Classical Era. Key Terms. Arab =

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Dar al-Islam


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
dar al islam

Dar al-Islam

literally = House of Islam

commonly refers to lands heavily influenced by Islam or where Muslims can practice freely

along with China, Dar al-Islam drives the history of the Post-Classical Era

key terms
Key Terms
  • Arab =
    • originally a resident of the Arabian Peninsula, then a speaker of Arabic
  • Bedouin =
    • nomads of the Arabian Peninsula
  • Islam = “submission”
    • monotheistic religion that grew out of Christianity & teaching of Muhammad
  • Muslim = “one who submits”
    • person who practices Islam
nomadic life in the
Nomadic Life in the

Pre-Islamic Arab World

bedouins
Bedouins
  • Center of Arab culture
  • Tribal
  • Filled w/ rivalry & competition
  • Animistic polytheism
  • On periphery of civilization
towns trade
Towns & Trade
  • Bedouin herders trade with oasis towns
slide12

Judaism

Muhammad*

Jesus*

Abraham

David

Moses*

Christianity

Islam

judaism a primer
Judaism – a primer
  • 1 god = Yahweh
    • Prophets: 1st= Abraham, founder= Moses
  • Religion of practice
  • Belief in covenant
  • Text = Torah (Old Testament of Bible)
  • No clear hierarchy in leadership
christianity a primer
Christianity – a primer
  • 1 god = Yahweh
    • Prophets: 1st= Abraham, founder= Jesus
  • Religion of faith
  • Strong belief in missionary work
  • Text = Bible - Old Testament & New Testament (life of Jesus)
  • Hierarchical leadership (Pope in Rome, Patriarch in Constantinople)
islam a primer
Islam – a primer
  • 1 god = Allah
    • Prophets: 1st= Abraham, founder= Muhammad
  • Religion of faith & practice
  • Strong belief in missionary work
  • Text = Quran – believed to be exact word of god
  • No clear hierarchy
islam
Islam

5 Pillars

most basic customs that support Islam

  • Profession of Faith
      • There is only 1 god, Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger
slide24
Practices: 5 Pillars
  • Prayer
      • Pray 5 times daily at prescribed times (dawn, noon, afternoon, evening, after sundown)
      • Face Mecca
slide27
Practices: 5 Pillars
  • Charity
    • systematic giving of 2.5% of one's wealtheach year to benefit the poor
slide32
Practices: 5 Pillars
  • Fasting
      • Fast during the holy month of Ramadan
slide33
Practices: 5 Pillars
  • Pilgrimage (Hajj)
    • the journey to holy city of Mecca that every adult Muslim must undertake at least once
significance of 5 pillars on islam
Significance of 5 Pillars on Islam
  • Unity, equality, common experience
  • Travel, trade, exchange
  • Building of universities & centers of learning
  • Study of astronomy
comparing monotheistic religions
Comparing Monotheistic Religions

Using World Civilization doc reader:

  • Compare beliefs/attitudes toward god & practices.
    • Judaism & Old Testament (pg. 11)
    • Christianity & New Testament (pg. 101)
    • Islam & Koran (pg. 114)
crisis after muhammad s death
Crisis After Muhammad’s Death

Faced Two Main Problems:

  • Arabic tribes leave Muslim community
  • Who should succeed Muhammad leadership?

Caliph(successor, deputy): political & religious leader

Results:

  • Dispute b/t Sunni & Shia
sunni
Sunni
  • Feel that devout Muslims can be caliphs even if not related to Muhammad
  • Make up approximately 80% of world Muslim population today
  • Supported Abu Bakr
    • Friend of Muhammad's; early convert to Islam
    • Becomes 1st caliph
shi a
Shi'a
  • Only accepted caliphs who were direct descendants of Muhammad
  • Supported Ali
    • Muhammad’s cousin & son-in-law
  • Believe rule of first three caliphs was illegitimate
crisis after muhammad s death1
Crisis After Muhammad’s Death

Result of dispute b/t Sunni & Shia:

  • Conflict allows the sunni Umayyad clan to rise to power
umayyad empire

Umayyad Empire

-Arab

-Conquerors

timeline pt1
Timeline – pt1
  • 597 = Byzantine & Persian Wars
  • 613 = Muhammad begins preaching
  • 632-661 = Early Caliphs
  • 661-750 = Umayyad Empire
umayyad empire stretched from spain to central asia
Umayyad Empire stretched from Spain to central Asia

Administrative Reforms

  • Caliph appointed governors to rule far-flung provinces
  • Governors ruled from strong garrison towns
  • Spoils from victories helped finance Umayyad government
  • Bureaucracy & military dominated by Muslim Arab elite
slide50
Instituted a three-level tax system:

1) Muslim Arabs:

      • approx 4% of population
      • not taxed

2) Muslim converts (non-Arab):

      • approx 6% of population, largest land owners
      • paid land tax

3) Non-Muslims & “People of the Book”:

      • approx 90% of population
      • paid land tax
      • paid jizya (head tax) for security
      • subject to own laws & courts
the down fall of umayyad in 750
The Down Fall of Umayyad in 750
  • Revolt?
    • Led by:
      • Devout Muslims upset with extravagance of Umayyad leadership
      • Shias
      • Muslim converts (non-Arabs)
abbasid caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate

Replaced Umayyad in 750

  • Read primary docs to find out what Abbasid Empire & its capital city (Bagdad) was like
    • Ben Tudela was Jewish & from Spain
    • Ibn Battuta was Muslim & from Morocco
  • What was Baghdad & Abbasid leadership like according to these two travelers?
  • How does the authors’ backgrounds influence their accounts?
abbasid

Abbasid

-Islamic flowering

-Preservers

slide55

Umayyad

Abbasid

timeline pt2
Timeline – pt2
  • 750-1258 = Abbasid
    • 777-809 = strong Abbasid Era, wars of succession
    • 945 – Buyid Persians capture Baghdad
    • 1055 – Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad
    • 1096 – Crusades start
    • 1258 – Mongols overthrow Abbasid, end Caliphate
rise of abbasid party
Rise of Abbasid Party
  • Abbasid

(the party of Abbas, tracing descent from Muhammad’s uncle)

  • Revolt dethroned Umayyad & captured capital
    • Supported by:
      • Devout Muslims who opposed extravagant Umayyad
      • Persian Muslims who resented secondary status
      • Shia Muslims who did not recognize Sunni caliphs
    • al-Abbas slaughtered Umayyad family at “Reconciliation Banquet”
early abbasid era
Early Abbasid Era
  • Built off of Umayyad precedent:
    • Rejected revolutionary allies (Shia) & defended Sunni
  • Time of:
    • Wealth
    • Learning
  • But, clearly different…
islamic conversion
Islamic Conversion
  • Mass conversions to Islam were encouraged throughout the empire.
  • Most converts were won over peacefully because of appeal of Islamic beliefs and advantages they enjoyed:

- didn’t have to pay head tax

- educational opportunities

- jobs as traders, administrators, judges

abbasid policies
Abbasid Policies
  • Centralizing forces
    • More complex bureaucracy
    • Created position of chief minister, wazir
    • Used Persian ruling concepts
  • Decentralizing forces
    • Strained leadership & succession problems
    • Influence of external groups
    • Provinces at outer reaches broke away or failed to forward taxes
wealth prosperity
Wealth & Prosperity
  • Commercial boom financed art, literature, palaces
    • Thrones of gold & jewels
    • Harems

Elitism!

thousand and one nights
Thousand and One Nights
  • Read inset on pg. 145
    • Answer the questions at the bottom
reason for wealth learning

Reason for wealth & learning…

Agrarian Expansion &

Commercial Boom

new crops urban growth
New Crops & Urban Growth

Several factors led to strong internal economy

  • Location
  • Size of empire
  • Beliefs of Islam
    • Hajj
    • View of merchants
    • “People of the Book”
new crops urban growth1
New Crops & Urban Growth

Fostered diffusion of crops & technologies

  • Sugarcane, rice, eggplants, oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, cotton
  • Irrigation, fertilization, crop rotation
    • Impact = more planting seasons, increased food supplies, urban growth, wealthy merchant & landlord class, slave trade
  • Camel, camel saddle, compass, paper, astrolabe, triangular lateen sail, dhows
    • Impact = formation of hemispheric trading zone
hemispheric trading zone
Hemispheric Trading Zone
  • Acting as merchants on Silk Roads
  • Acting as merchants on Trans-Sahara Routes
  • Acting as merchants on Indian Ocean
    • Impact: Interconnection b/t Africa, Europe, South Asia, Southeast Asia, China; Improved banking; New business forms that spread risks
    • Example = Africa
wealth prosperity1
Wealth & Prosperity
  • Commercial boom fostered urbanization
    • Baghdad
      • New capital
      • Richest city in the world
era of learning
Era of Learning
  • Commercial boom financed science
  • After Islam
    • Receptive to accomplishments of conquered civs
    • Translated & built on Greek works
    • Religious, legal, philosophical, scientific, & mathematic treatises flourish

(Empire of Faith: Baghdad city of scholars & science)

review compare caliphates
Review: Compare Caliphates
  • With a partner, create a poster of words & visuals that compares & contrasts…
    • the Umayyad Empire OR the Abbasid Empire

with

    • A classical empire of your choice.
timeline pt3
Timeline – pt3
  • 1291 =
    • Last Christian Crusader state falls
  • 1300s =
    • Ottoman Turks enter Middle East & fill power vacuum
  • 1453 =
    • Ottomans conquer Constantinople, establishing a new Muslim empire in the Middle East & ending the Byzantine