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Dar al-Islam Abode of Islam 7 th century Arabia Trade between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran, and Axum (Ethiopia ) Mecca’s Pre-Islamic Foundations Adam and Eve: Shrine and Tomb Circumambulation by Noah’s ark Abraham (Ibrahim), Ismael, and Hagar 1892 BCE Zamzam spring Rebuilt shrine—Ka’ba

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dar al islam

Dar al-Islam

Abode of Islam

7 th century arabia
7th century Arabia
  • Trade between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran, and Axum (Ethiopia)
mecca s pre islamic foundations
Mecca’s Pre-Islamic Foundations
  • Adam and Eve: Shrine and Tomb
  • Circumambulation by Noah’s ark
  • Abraham (Ibrahim), Ismael, and Hagar
    • 1892 BCE
    • Zamzam spring
    • Rebuilt shrine—Ka’ba
  • Gods in the Ka’ba ( pagan idols?)
muhammad 570 632
Orphan

Qurayash tribe

Khadija (1st wife)

Muhammad 570-632
spiritual transformation
Spiritual Transformation
  • Night of Power and Excellence
    • c. 610
  • Jibril (Gabriel) with God’s message
  • Revelations or Recitations
  • God = Allah
  • Public recitations—God or jinns?
slide6

“Say ‘Allah is God alone!

God the eternal!

He begets not and is not begotten!

Nor is there like unto Him anyone!”

- The Quran 2:344

seal of the prophets
Muhammad as the last and final prophet

Following in the tradition of previous prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, Jesus

All had been Muslim, but had turned astray or not gotten the entire message

Islam = Submission

Muslim = one who submits (to the will of God)

People of the Book

Warning image follows…

Seal of the Prophets
the five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Shahadah: There is one God and Muhammad is his prophet.
  • Salat: 5x Daily Prayer
  • Fasting during Ramadan
  • Zakat: Alms for the weak and poor
  • Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
prescriptions of islam
Prescriptions of Islam
  • What is being “prescribed” here???
slide11
Conflict in Mecca: why?

Hijra from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) 622

Calendar

The Umma

Mecca 630

Warning!

death of muhammad 632
Abu Bakr the first khalifa (successor)

Umar c. 634-644

Uthman (Umayya family) c. 644-656

Ali (son-in-law/cousin) c. 656-660

Death of Muhammad 632
conflict over succession
Conflict over succession
  • Shi’at Ali (Party of Ali) = Shi’ites
    • Ali, Muhammad’s first cousin/son-in-law should succeed. Movement to Iraq
  • Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama’a = Sunnis

(People of Tradition and community)

shi ites
Shi’ites
  • Led by an Imam.
  • Descendants of Muhammad through Ali and Fatima.
  • Leaders are divinely inspired and know the hidden meanings of the Quran.
  • Imam are the only ones who offer judgment on religious law.
  • 12 heavenly Imams (perfect teachers)
  • 12th Imam, the Mahdi (guided one), will reappear and guide humans towards justice and peace.
sunnis
Caliph is the secular leader.

No divine connection for leaders.

Represents the religious leaders, but doctrine is left to the Ulama (those who know)

Sunnis
slide17
Quran c.650 (Recitation)
  • Hadith—words and deeds of the prophet
  • Shari’a—Islamic Law
policy toward conquered peoples
First hundred years

Non-Arab, non-Muslim population

Few forced conversions—taxes

People of the Book

One had to be Arab to be Muslim and vice versa.

mid-700s more and more non-Arabs became Muslim

Policy Toward Conquered Peoples
umayyad dynasty
Umayyad Dynasty
  • (661-750)
  • Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Persia, Sind (NW India), Iberian peninsula.
  • Center at Damascus.
  • Military expansion.
  • Dome of the Rock--Jerusalem
abbasid dynasty
Abbasid Dynasty
  • (750-1258) Crete, Sicily, Cyprus, Rhodes, Sardinia, Corsica, southern Italy, southern France. Center at Baghdad. Not actively expansionist.
battle at talas river
Battle at Talas River
  • 751 Defeat of Chinese troops
  • Gain of Chinese prisoners of war and their technologies…..
  • Most important: Paper