WAVES OF IMMIGRATION • 1815-1860----5 MILLION IMMIGRANTS MAINLY FROM ENGLAND, IRELAND, GERMANY, SCANDINAVIA, AND OTHER PLACES IN NORTHWESTERN EUROPE • 1865-1890----10 MILLION IMMIGRANTS MAINLY FROM NORTHWESTERN EUROPE • 1890-1914----15 MILLION IMMIGRANTS CAME FROM EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE. THEY WERE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN, TURKISH, LITHUANIAN, RUSSIAN, JEWISH, GREEK, ITALIAN AND ROMANIAN
Characteristics of Old or Native immigrants: Northern and western Europe WASPS White Anglo Saxon Protestants English speaking
Step 1 of the AHPPA: Define the Problem Some groups in the United States believe that there are too many new immigrants arriving in the country who will cause social and economic upheaval
Characteristics of New Immigrants: Eastern and southern Europe, Asia, Latin America Non Caucasian Non English speakers Catholic Jewish Buddhist
Step 2 of the AHPPA: Gather the Evidence Now we will find evidence of the new wave of immigrants
CHART OF IMMIGRATION 1820 TO 1980 1900
Percent distribution by type of residence Foreign born total native
Step 3 of the AHPPA: Identify the Causes Why was there an increase in immigration from China? • Chinese immigration can be divided into three periods: • 1849-1882 • 1882-1965 • 1965 to the present • The first period began shortly after the California Gold Rush and ended abruptly with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. • The Chinese immigrants wanted to come to the US because they were poor and they wanted to make more money to send back to their families. The Chinese faced economic hardships in China and were hoping for greater opportunity in the US.
AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION “I do most solemnly promise and swear that I will always, to the utmost of my ability, labor, plead and wage a continuous warfare against ignorance and fanaticism; that I will use my utmost power to strike the shackles and chains of blind obedience to the Roman Catholic church from the hampered and bound consciences of a priest-ridden and church-oppressed people; that I will never allow any one, a member of the Roman Catholic church, to become a member of this order, I knowing him to be such; that I will use my influence to promote the interest of all Protestants everywhere in the world that I may be; that I will not employ a Roman Catholic in any capacity if I can procure the services of a Protestant. I furthermore promise and swear that I will not aid in building or maintaining, by my resources, any Roman Catholic church or institution of their sect or creed whatsoever, but will do all in my power to retard and break down the power of the Pope, in this country or any other;”
AMERICANIZATION MOVEMENT "THERE IS NO ROOM IN THIS COUNTRY FOR HYPHENATED AMERICANISM… SOME OF THE VERY BEST AMERICANS I HAVE EVER KNOWN WERE NATURALIZED AMERICANS, AMERICANS BORN ABROAD. BUT A HYPHENATED AMERICAN IS NOT AN AMERICAN AT ALL. THIS IS JUST AS TRUE OF THE MAN WHO PUTS ‘NATIVE’ BEFORE THE HYPHEN AS OF THE MAN WHO PUTS GERMAN OR IRISH OR ENGLISH OR FRENCH BEFORE THE HYPHEN… THE ONE ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN WAY OF BRINGING THIS NATION TO RUIN… WOULD BE TO PERMIT IT TO BECOME A TANGLE OF SQUABBLING NATIONALITIES… FOR AN AMERICAN CITIZEN TO VOTE AS A GERMAN-AMERICAN, AN IRISH-AMERICAN, OR AN ENGLISH-AMERICAN, IS TO BE A TRAITOR TO AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS; AND THOSE HYPHENATED AMERICANS WHO TERRORIZE AMERICAN POLITICIANS BY THREATS OF THE FOREIGN VOTE ARE ENGAGED IN TREASON TO THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC." -FORMER PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT, SPEECH BEFORE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS, 1915 "THESE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPEANS ARE OF A VERY DIFFERENT TYPE FROM THE NORTH EUROPEAN WHO PRECEDED THEM… OUR TASK IS… TO ASSIMILATE AND AMALGAMATE THESE PEOPLES AS A PART OF OUR AMERICAN RACE, AND TO IMPLANT IN THESE CHILDREN, SO FAR AS CAN BE DONE, THE ANGLO-SAXON CONCEPTION OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, LAW AND ORDER AND POPULAR GOVERNMENT, AND TO AWAKEN IN THEM REVERENCE FOR OUR DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS AND FOR THOSE THINGS IN OUR NATIONAL LIFE WHICH WE AS A PEOPLE HOLD TO BE OF ABIDING WORTH." -E.P. CUBBERLEY, "CHANGING CONCEPTIONS OF EDUCATION, 1909
THE CHINESE WERE THE FIRST GROUP OF IMMIGRANTS TO BE DENIED ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES
Step 4 of the AHPPA: Evaluate the Policy Now we will examine the law and its results. The Chinese Exclusion Act
Consequences of the Law: • the Geary Act of 1892 extended the provisions of the Exclusion Act for another ten years. • In 1902 the ban against the immigration of Chinese laborers was made permanent. • Congress also sought to curtail the ability of Chinese laborers to return to the U.S. after traveling abroad. • Prerequisites for return to the U.S. included owning property worth at least $1,000 or having a wife in the U.S.