The Industrial Revolution Spreads chapter 9 section 1 . Honors World History . I. New Industrial Powers. A. Britain’s influence diminishes
Honors World History
1. Belgium became the first European country outside of Britain to industrialize after British mechanic William Cockerill opened a factory there in 1807.
2. Only a matter of time before other nations would challenge Britain’s industrial supremacy.
1. more abundant supplies of coal &iron
2. advantage of following Britain’s lead
3. 1900: American industry led the world
1. Produced by British engineer Henry Bessemer who developed a process in 1856 to purify iron ore and produce this new substance.
2. Was lighter, harder, and more durable than iron
3. Became a major material in tools, bridges, and railroads.
4. By the 1880s, had replaced iron as the symbol of the Industrial Revolution
Left: Bessemer converter
Bottom: Bethlehem Steel, 2003.
Last car in 1930 to cross the steel bridge at Conklingville NY.
The first bridge at Conklingville was built in 1852 and lost to high water in 1860. In 1861 a new bridge was built of steel and lasted until the valley was flooded in 1930.
One-lane steel bridge built in the late 1800's & restored in 2006 / 2007.
Located in Neshanic, NJ.
Photo taken Dec. 25, 2007 facing east.
1st Steel Skyscapter
Vital Statistics:Location: Chicago, Illinois, USACompletion Date: 1885 (demolished in 1931)Height: 138 feetStories: 10Materials: Steel
a. Widely used in construction (its intended purpose) but also war.
b. Earned Nobel a huge fortune which he willed to fund the famous Nobel prizes that are still awarded today!
1. 1886: Karl Benz received a patent for the first automobile, which had three wheels.
2. 1887: Gottlieb Daimler introduced the first four wheeled automobile.
3. “horseless” carriages
4. American carmaker, Henry Ford, was the first to make a model that reached the breathtaking speed of 25 miles per hour – made the U.S. a leader in the automobile industry
Do you hear me?
1. Telegraph invented by Samuel F.B. Morse
a. First line between Baltimore and Washington, D.C.
2. 1876: Scottish – born American inventor Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone.
3. 1890s: Italian Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio.
1. By the 1800s, large companies dominated industry.
2. To raise capital, they sold hundreds of thousands of shares of stock.
a. These businesses formed giant corporations – businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock.
b. Stockholders risk only the amount they invest in the company and cannot be held responsible for any debts of the corporation.
1. Alfred Kruppin Germany: steelmaking
a. bought up coal and iron mines as well as shipping lines.
b. Later, he and his son, acquired plants that made tools, railroad cars, and weapons.
a. gained control of oil wells, oil refineries, and oil pipelines
b. dominated the American petroleum industry
Andrew Mellon (finance, oil)
J.P. Morgan (finance, industrial consolidation
John D. Rockefeller
Cornelius Vanderbilt (water transportation & railroads
Charles Schwab (steel)
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