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The Industrial Revolution Spreads chapter 9 section 1 . Honors World History . I. New Industrial Powers. A. Britain’s influence diminishes

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i new industrial powers
I. New Industrial Powers
  • A. Britain’s influence diminishes

1. Belgium became the first European country outside of Britain to industrialize after British mechanic William Cockerill opened a factory there in 1807.

2. Only a matter of time before other nations would challenge Britain’s industrial supremacy.

look out britain not top dog anymore
Look out Britain: not top dog anymore!!!!
  • B. New Pacesetters: Germany, France,United States

1. more abundant supplies of coal &iron

2. advantage of following Britain’s lead

3. 1900: American industry led the world

in production

c uneven development
C. Uneven Development
  • 1. Eastern and Southern European countries often lacked natural resources or capital to invest in industry.
  • 2. Japan, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand thrived.
d impact
D. Impact
  • 1. Rapid urbanization
  • 2. Working conditions slowly improved after 1900
3 factory system produced huge quantities of new goods at lower prices than ever before
3. Factory system produced huge quantities of new goods at lower prices than ever before.
  • a. Workers were buying goods that in earlier times only the wealthy could afford.
  • b. The demand for goods created jobs, as did the building of cities, railroads, and factories.
ii technology and industry
II. Technology and Industry
  • A. Marriage of science, technology, and industry spurred economic growth
  • B. Steel

1. Produced by British engineer Henry Bessemer who developed a process in 1856 to purify iron ore and produce this new substance.

2. Was lighter, harder, and more durable than iron

3. Became a major material in tools, bridges, and railroads.

4. By the 1880s, had replaced iron as the symbol of the Industrial Revolution

Left: Bessemer converter

Bottom: Bethlehem Steel, 2003.

seeing is believing
Seeing is believing!!!!

Last car in 1930 to cross the steel bridge at Conklingville NY.

The first bridge at Conklingville was built in 1852 and lost to high water in 1860. In 1861 a new bridge was built of steel and lasted until the valley was flooded in 1930.

One-lane steel bridge built in the late 1800's & restored in 2006 / 2007.

Located in Neshanic, NJ.

Photo taken Dec. 25, 2007 facing east.

how about railroads cars and skyscrapers
How about railroads, cars, and skyscrapers??!!??!!

1st Steel Skyscapter

Vital Statistics:Location: Chicago, Illinois, USACompletion Date: 1885 (demolished in 1931)Height: 138 feetStories: 10Materials: Steel

c chemicals
C. Chemicals
  • 1. Hundreds of new products, from medicines such as aspirin to perfumes and soaps and fertilizers.
  • 2. 1866: Alfred Nobel invented dynamite

a. Widely used in construction (its intended purpose) but also war.

b. Earned Nobel a huge fortune which he willed to fund the famous Nobel prizes that are still awarded today!

d electricity
D. Electricity
  • 1. Replaced steam as the dominant source of industrial power.
  • 2. Key milestones
    • Italian scientist Alessandro Volta developed the first battery around 1800
    • English chemist Michael Farraday created the first electric motor and the first dynamo, a machine that generates electricity.
    • American inventor Thomas Edison made the first electric light bulb in the 1870s
e new methods of production
E. New Methods of Production
  • 1. Interchangeable Parts: identical components that could be used in place of one another.
  • 2. Assembly Line: style of production where workers add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next – made production faster and cheaper.
iii technology speeds transportation and communication
III. Technology Speeds Transportation and Communication
  • A. Automobile Age Begins

1. 1886: Karl Benz received a patent for the first automobile, which had three wheels.

2. 1887: Gottlieb Daimler introduced the first four wheeled automobile.

3. “horseless” carriages

4. American carmaker, Henry Ford, was the first to make a model that reached the breathtaking speed of 25 miles per hour – made the U.S. a leader in the automobile industry

b conquest of the air
B. Conquest of the air!
  • 1. 1903: Orville and Wilbur Wright made history at Kitty Hawk, NC
  • 2. Commercial air travel would not begin until the 1920s (after WW I)
c rapid communication
C. Rapid Communication

Hello?

Hello?

Do you hear me?

1. Telegraph invented by Samuel F.B. Morse

a. First line between Baltimore and Washington, D.C.

b. 1844

2. 1876: Scottish – born American inventor Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone.

3. 1890s: Italian Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio.

iv new directions for business
IV. New Directions for Business
  • Rise of Big Business

1. By the 1800s, large companies dominated industry.

2. To raise capital, they sold hundreds of thousands of shares of stock.

a. These businesses formed giant corporations – businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock.

slide17

b. Stockholders risk only the amount they invest in the company and cannot be held responsible for any debts of the corporation.

b move toward monopolies
B. Move Toward Monopolies

1. Alfred Kruppin Germany: steelmaking

a. bought up coal and iron mines as well as shipping lines.

b. Later, he and his son, acquired plants that made tools, railroad cars, and weapons.

  • John D. Rockefeller in the U.S.: Standard Oil Company (Empire)

a. gained control of oil wells, oil refineries, and oil pipelines

b. dominated the American petroleum industry

3 cartels crush competition
3. Cartels crush competition
  • a. set production levels.
  • b. fixed prices
slide20

Andrew Carnegie (steel)

Andrew Mellon (finance, oil)

J.P. Morgan (finance, industrial consolidation

John D. Rockefeller

(oil)

Cornelius Vanderbilt (water transportation & railroads

Charles Schwab (steel)

4 move toward gov t regulation
4. Move Toward (Gov’t.) Regulation
  • a. Economic leaders: Robber barons?
  • b. Economic leaders: Captains of Industry?

BEFORE YOU ANSWER, READ THE NEXT SLIDE !

slide22

Robber Barons

  • J. Bradford DeLong
  • University of California at Berkeley, and NBER
  • first draft October 13, 1997; second draft January 1, 1998
  • I. Introduction
  • "Robber Barons": that was what U.S. political and economic commentator Matthew Josephson (1934) called the economic princes of his own day. Today we call them "billionaires." Our capitalist economy--any capitalist economy--throws up such enormous concentrations of wealth: those lucky enough to be in the right place at the right time, driven and smart enough to see particular economic opportunities and seize them, foresighted enough to have gathered a large share of the equity of a highly-profitable enterprise into their hands, and well-connected enough to fend off political attempts to curb their wealth (or well-connected enough to make political favors the foundation of their wealth).
  • Matthew Josephson called them "Robber Barons". He wanted readers to think back to their European history classes, back to thugs with spears on horses who did nothing save fight each other and loot merchant caravans that passed under the walls of their castles. He judged that their wealth was in no sense of their own creation, but was like a tax levied upon the productive workers and craftsmen of the American economy. Many others agreed: President Theodore Roosevelt--the Republican Roosevelt, president in the first decade of this century--spoke of the "malefactors of great wealth" and embraced a public, political role for the government in "anti-trust": controlling, curbing, and breaking up large private concentrations of economic power.
  • Their defenders--many bought and paid for, a few not--painted a different picture: the billionaires were examples of how America was a society of untrammeled opportunity, where people could rise to great heights of wealth and achievement on their industry and skill alone; they were public benefactors who built up their profitable enterprises out of a sense of obligation to the consumer; they were well-loved philanthropists; they were "industrial statesmen."
  • THINK ABOUT IT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!