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UPOV and PVP System Awareness Razing Seminar Phnom Penh, Cambodia, February 24, 2012. P lant Variety - Essential for Development of Agriculture -. Dr. M utsuo Iwamoto Chairman J apan Association for Techno-innovation in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ( JATAFF ).

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P lant Variety - Essential for Development of Agriculture -

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    1. UPOV and PVP System Awareness Razing Seminar Phnom Penh, Cambodia, February 24, 2012 Plant Variety - Essential for Development of Agriculture - Dr. Mutsuo Iwamoto Chairman Japan Association for Techno-innovation in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (JATAFF)

    2. Key technologies contributing to the increase in agricultural productivity • Plant Variety • Irrigation System • Machinery • Fertilizer • Chemical

    3. Rice -The Highest Potential of Productivity in Crops- plaughing levelling transplanting nursery preparation sowing harvesting drying & storage Working hours : 200 hrs/ ha Productivity : Yield : 6 ton/ha = 200 times Seeds necessary : 30 kg/ha

    4. Plant variety breeding -Definition・Objectives・Methods- Definition Plant breeding is an art and science which deals with changing genotypes of the plants, to adapt them to the service of human being. Objectives Methods ・High yields ・Improving crop quality ・Disease resistance ・Insect or pest resistance ・Changing plant figures ・Changing maturity duration ・Non-shattering characteristics ・Uniformity in product ・Changing dormancy character ・Salt Tolerance ・Cold tolerance ・Drought or moisture stress tolerance ・Eliminating toxic substances ・・ ・Plant introduction method ・Pure line selection method ・Mass selection method ・Pedigree method ・Bulk method ・Back cross method ・Modification of bulk method ・Hybridization ・Recurrent selection ・Clonal breeding ・Mutation breeding ・Composite variety production ・Synthetic varietyproduction・・

    5. New era of plant breeding • High-throughput sequencing and genotyping techniques developed during the last decade opened a new era of genome based breeding for new plant varieties to be developed more efficiently and definitely. • One of typical examples is expanding commercialization of biotech-plants (GMO:genetically modified organisms) • Another promising application of genome-based breeding is to make it easier to discover target genes in genetic resources either in the genebank or on the farm and even wild species in the field. Plant genetic resources become an essential issue with intellectual property protection for new plant varieties PVP (Pplant Variety Protection)

    6. Success story in breeding (1) 70 years were necessary for rice producing area to reach to the northern most in “Hokkaidou”, and another 50 years were necessary to breed rice variety 「Kirara397」having more favorable taste, having become the biggest rice producing area in Japan. Before 1860 1870s 1890s : 「Bouzu」 1910s : 「Hashiribouzu」 1940s : 「Nourin No.11」 latitude:N43° 「Akage」 Sapporo + 1990s : 「Kirara397」 (Matsuo)

    7. Green revolution with Miracle Rice : IR8 (1966) Success story in breeding (2) ・ Indonesia : Peta + Taiwan : Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen ・ dwarf and strong stem: >150 cm 120 cm ・ higher productivity : 2 ton/ha 9.5 ~ 10.5 ton/ha ・ shorter maturation period : 160 -170 days 130 days “Miracle Rice” finding proves we can never stop rice breeding” (IRRI)

    8. Success story in breeding (3) In 2010, Aichi Agricultural Research Center succeeded in breeding a highly potential variety against rice blastwith introduction of a germplasm from Yunna’s rice in China to domestic rice. Newly Developed variety Conventional variety

    9. Success story in breeding (4) ) Flood Tolerant Rice:Swarna-Sub1 IRRI discovered in 1978 a gene that they called Sub1 gene in rice varieties in Orissa and Sri Lanka. This gene enables rice to survive and more importantly recover after flooding. IRRI has worked to transffered the Sub 1 gene to Swarna which is a popular rice variety in India and selected a high potential flood tolerant Swarna with a marker-assisted backcrossing selection method. Swarna with Sub 1 yields is twice that of Swarna without Sub 1 with about 15 days of submergence. Swarna-Sub1 was released in August 2009 and has just be started dissemination in India and Bangladesh, showing appreciable results. (IRRI) (IRRI)

    10. Success story in breeding (5) NERICA (New Rice for Africa) NERICA is a rice variety originally developed by scientists of the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) since early 1990s, using conventional and molecular biology techniques to combine characteristics of Asian rice, Oryza sativa and African rice, Oryza glaberrima. NERICA has much advantages in terms of productivity, high protein, drought and pest tolerance, with even little irrigation and fertilizer. NERICA is typical proof of importanceof widening biodiversity in germplasm for breeding strategy. On the other hand, there are negative opinions that NERICA is not easy to be widely adapted in small farmers, particularly, due to the condition of existence of traditional seed system. This is why WARDA adopted “Farmer Participatory Seed Selection System” even in the beginning stage of breeding program to encourage NERICA to be disseminated quickly as possible. Japan supports the international project dubbed “CARD” , Coalition for African Rice Development, to expect African rice production from 14 million tons to 28 million tons by 2017. O. Glaberrima (farther) O. Sativa (mother) Progency × = high yield, but less tolerant of African environ- ment highly tolerant of African en- vironment , but prone to loadging and shatterig NERICA 1 NERICA 4 NERICA 10

    11. Japan made a great effort for a long time to support developing nations through JICA and other frameworks to establish Genebanks for preservation of genetic resources and follow up their management including capacity building of experties as well as conducting collaboration research for collecting and characterizing of newly surveyed genetic resources in corporation with research institutions and universities. Long history of Japan’s contribution for developing nations to establish Genebank Country Project Plant Term Japan and China Joint Program for Rice Breeding using a wide diversity of genetic resources in Yunnan Province Rice 1982-1997 China Rice and Legumes Horticultural crops Project for the Establishment of the Seed Bank SriLanka 1987-1992 Project for the Establishment of the Seed Bank Myanmar Rice & Legumes 1990/ 1997-2005 Pakistan Plant Genetic Resource preservation and research Laboratory Wheat and Legumes Horticultural crops 1993-1996 2001-2003 Pakistan

    12. Comparison of Asia to other regions in terms of climate, farming system as well as biodiversity Agriculture Biodiversity Climate Region Scale Crops continental climate North America large monoculture small marine west coast climate mixture based on upland crops Europe medium medium mixture based on paddy rice) large Asia monsoon small

    13. GRiSP : The Global Rice Science Partnership The GRiSP, an initiative of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), represents for the first time ever, a single strategic and work plan for global rice research and how it can contribute more effectively to solving development challenges. GRiSP was launched in November 2010. IRRI leads the GRiSP together with other two CGIAR centers, CIAT and AfricaRice, with more than 900 rice research and development partners worldwide to: • Increase rice productivity and value for the poor• Foster more sustainable rice-based production• Help rice farmers adapt to climate change• Improve the efficiency and equity of the rice sector As for Cambodia, three ministers associated with agriculture and water development are involving in the GRiSP

    14. Conclusion Treasure box of genetic resources + Many opportunities for highly potential research institutes in Asia to closely collaborate together ・NARS (advanced and developing countries) ・International Research Institutes (IRRI, ICRISAT, CIFOR, ICARDA, AVRDC) + Plant Variety Protection (PVP) Asia should grow to be the heart of breeding plant variety in the world East Asian PVP Forum

    15. Thank you so much ! Ubasute rice terrace field in winter, Nagano