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Northern Metropolitan Region PowerPoint Presentation
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Northern Metropolitan Region

Northern Metropolitan Region

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Northern Metropolitan Region

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  1. Northern Metropolitan Region Language Support Program for Secondary Schools Charmaine Tu (Speech & Language Pathologist) Day 2-Tuesday 21 June 2011

  2. The LSP Professional Learning Program Aims to: • build on teacher understanding of oral language development and difficulties • develop a framework for understanding oral language • utilise a more systematic process for identifying language difficulties in the classroom • assist teachers to better cater for students with language difficulties within their classroom practices.

  3. A Framework for Understanding Oral Language Ideas… Messages… Meanings… Vocabulary... Morphology… Semantics I Conventions… Rules… Grammar … Phonology…Syntax … Prosody C P Purpose... Functions of language… Pragmatics AL Ability to learn… knowing how to learn.. Metalinguistics…Metacognition


  5. WORD MEANING Individual words and their meanings are stored in a person’s word bank or vocabulary ICPAL I

  6. words that connect or 'glue' the content words together such as in, about, the and although; words that carry meaning by themselves such as hat, jump, and red; CONTENT words FUNCTION words WORD MEANING There are two types of word meanings in English I ICPAL

  7. WORD MEANING CONTENT WORDS NOUNS VERBS ADJECTIVES ADVERBS objects persons, animals, places, things, and abstract ideas actions describe, identify or quantify nouns describe how, when where etc actions are done I ICPAL

  8. FUNCTION WORDS WORD MEANING PREPOSITIONS ARTICLES CONJUNCTIONS such asin, about, under such as the, a, an such as and, though, but I ICPAL

  9. PARTS OF WORDS HAVE MEANING PARTS OF WORDS HAVE MEANING Consider these word pairs skip - skipped apple - apples run - running What is the difference between the two words in each pair? ICPAL I

  10. MORPHOLOGY PARTS OF WORDS HAVE MEANING … the study of word meanings Each unit of meaning is called a morpheme. Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning. I ICPAL

  11. VOCABULARY AS A MEANING NETWORK Words heard are associated with meaning networks that make up a person’s vocabulary Meaning networks are both rich and extensive ICPAL I

  12. $$$ Soda syphon Carbonated water Doctor CO2 Lemonade Hospital soda Nurse gastroenteritis Coca Cola Mineral water H2O germ WATER microscope microbe river laboratory BACTERIA stream pollution dam ANALYSIS lake toxic DRINKING SUPPLY taps pipes reservoir weir plumber I ICPAL $$$

  13. One in Eleven Identification and Teaching Strategies based on …….. Practical Strategies for Teaching Adolescents with a Language Disorder Mandy Brent, Florence Gough & Susan Robinson

  14. Differentiation of the curriculum Working Together Linking skills and curriculum for adolescents with a language learning disability Mandy Brent & Chris Millgate-Smith

  15. LSP Oral Language Observational Profile Victorian Essential Learning Standards Language for Learning OZ Child Checklist & Help Sheets Munro’s ICPAL Framework “One in Eleven”

  16. IDENTIFICATION Ideas……………………..Word Level • Students with language difficulties often: • have a limited vocabulary • are slow to recognize the meaning of words • tend to be concrete in their interpretation of the meaning of words • tend to attach only one meaning to a specific word I ICPAL

  17. IDENTIFICATION Ideas……………………..Word Level • Students with language difficulties often: • confuse words that have more than one meaning • need assistance to learn the special vocabulary of various subjects • do not deduce the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context • confuse words that sound alike (e.g. conscious/conscience, consistent/constant) I ICPAL


  19. TEACHING PROCEDURES Ideas……………………..Word Level • Pre-teaching • Present at a slower pace. • Question to clarify knowledge of the vocabulary. • Make connections with prior knowledge. • In the general classroom the student will then have some prior knowledge of the language and be able to concentrate on comprehension of the teacher’s instructions. I ICPAL

  20. TEACHING PROCEDURES Ideas……………………..Word Level • Students need to hear new words and require help in pronunciation • Divide new words into syllables • Identify phonograms and base words e.g. a student might know ‘character’ but not ‘characterisation’ • Attach new vocabulary to words students already know • Use visual images or concept maps I ICPAL

  21. Enriching The Meaning Network TEACHING PROCEDURES Ideas……………………..Word Level Defining and Describing Brainstorm Same - Different Synonyms - Antonyms

  22. Developmental Sequence for Learning Word Meanings When you ask a student what a word such as “car” means It has wheels, it goes fast People can drive them to go places Cars are vehicles like bicycles A type of transport Functionally Based Meanings Perceptually Based Meanings Meanings in Hierarchies Abstract Generic Based Meanings Some meanings more general than others Words understood in abstract ways Words understood in perceptual ways Words understood in functional ways Understand transport as a concept What they look or sound like What they do or are used for Cars and bicycles are vehicles

  23. TEACHING PROCEDURES Teaching the Meanings of Novel Words • Introduce word in meaningful context. • Show 4-5 pictorial or concrete examples. • If possible link an action with the word. • Show 4-5 pictorial or concrete NON examples. • Suggest synonyms for the word. • Show the word in another context. • Have the student select examples of the word from non-examples of the word. • Have the student use the word in meaningful sentences.

  24. TEACHING PROCEDURES A Six –Step Process for Teaching New Terms (Robert Marzano 2006) • Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. • Ask students to restate their description, explanation or example in their own words. • Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term or phrase. • Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms. • Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another. • Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms.

  25. The Frayer Model

  26. TEACHING PROCEDURES Ideas……………………..Word Level The Language of Learning (One in Eleven Page 71 Table 10.1) compare present reference comprehension contrast illustrate opposite vocabulary list collect characteristics evaluate define calculate plural source identify approximate omitted issue explain evaluate express argumentative describe text predict produce refer evidence consider represent context I ICPAL

  27. Let’s take a look ! Examine the vocabulary used in your unit of work. Highlight the key words that may need to be pretaught or clarified. Discuss how you could incorporate this into your program.

  28. I ICPAL

  29. Simple sentences describe a single event The agent or doer the action He put it in the car ICPAL I

  30. Variations of Simple Sentences Describe an event Give an instruction I finished my work. Give me back my book. Ask a question Comment on a situation That’s not fair. When is it my turn? I ICPAL

  31. Complex Sentences Usually contain joining words (conjunctions) or subordinate clauses, i.e. a dependent clause which is not complete by itself. because while and unless but before after

  32. Complex Sentences

  33. Complex Sentences

  34. COMPLEX SENTENCES Ideas……………………..Sentence Level • Sentences in text books often • are tightly worded • use complex sentence structure • have many clauses that make sentences difficult to ”unpack” • Students need such language expanded and reworded to be able to understand it. I ICPAL

  35. COMPLEX SENTENCES Ideas……………………..Sentence Level Factories often discharge their polluted water directly into rivers or the sea. Factories sometimes produce waste that can cause pollution. Water is often used to wash the wastes away. The water might flow from the factories straight into rivers or the sea. I ICPAL

  36. IDENTIFICATION Ideas……………………..Sentence Level • Students may have difficulty understanding and using: • complex sentences • adjectives and adverbs • elaborate phrases eg. the tall, gnarled, old woman • in oral and written language I ICPAL

  37. TEACHING PROCEDURES Ideas……………………..Sentence Level • Consider your students’ understanding and use of: • the range of question types • complex sentences • eg. cause/effect (because, so) • temporal sequence (when, before) • condition (if, unless) I ICPAL

  38. Ask & AnswerWh Questions Marion Blank questions.doc

  39. I ICPAL

  40. Discourse Meaning The word‘discourse’ refers to the sequence of spoken sentences in: • a description • a conversation • a story • a set of instructions • or an explanation I ICPAL

  41. Discourse Meaning A large car met the jet after it had landed. Two security guards came up the steps into the aircraft and escorted us to the car. One afternoon as I was sitting outside my tent, I heard raised voices. The day was warm here and we removed our jackets. I saw a most curious sight. We carried them with our computer bags. Mr Atkins, his face purple with anger, strode towards us . I ICPAL

  42. Discourse Meaning To evaluate a discourse in terms of its meaning, you can examine whether: • each sentence follows on from earlier sentences to maintain the topic • the sentences flow or are connected • sentences are predictable from earlier • sentences. I ICPAL

  43. Discourse Meaning During communication, participants expect the sentence ideas to be predictable or to flow. Responses are expected to follow from what has been said earlier. Responses may: extend or elaborate what has been said earlier, support it provide examples argue against it I ICPAL

  44. Discourse Meaning When the text is a story, the discourse ideas include the main characters where and when it occurs the plot of the story and the events in it I ICPAL

  45. Topic Meaning Down, down. Emily felt herself continuing to go down. It was getting warmer now and she felt the perspiration on her body. It had been dark earlier but now it was lighter. She was becoming more relaxed. She was breathing more slowly and her heart was relaxed. Images flashed before her eyes. She couldn't tell if they were real or in her imagination. Suddenly she felt a different sensation. Had the falling stopped? "Will I be interested this time ?" she asked herself. I ICPAL

  46. Topic Meaning How do listeners work out the topic? make informed guesses test these guesses modifyif necessary I ICPAL

  47. IDENTIFICATION Ideas……………………..Discourse/Topic Level • Students may have difficulty with: • following spoken instructions • understanding and recalling narratives and events • linking ideas through the use of pronouns • sequencing ideas • identifying the main idea or drawing conclusions • paraphrasing or putting information into own words I ICPAL