chapter 30 disorders of hepatobiliary and exocrine pancreas function n.
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Essentials of Pathophysiology. Chapter 30 Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function. The liver does not play a role in glucose homeostasis. Jaundice results from an abnormally high accumulation of bile in the blood.

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pre lecture quiz true false

The liver does not play a role in glucose homeostasis.

  • Jaundice results from an abnormally high accumulation of bile in the blood.
  • Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, is of bacterial origin.
  • Cholelithiasis, or gallstones, is caused by precipitation of substances contained in bile, mainly cholesterol and bilirubin.
  • Chronic pancreatitis is a severe, life-threatening disorder associated with the escape of activated pancreatic enzymes into the pancreas and surrounding tissues.
Pre lecture quiz true/false






pre lecture quiz

The __________ cells are capable of removing and phagocytizing old and defective blood cells, bacteria, and other foreign material from the portal blood as it flows through the sinusoid.

  • One of the metabolic functions of the liver is the conversion of ammonia, which is produced by deamination of amino acids, into __________. 
  • Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom in persons with cholestasis, probably related to increased bile __________ in the blood.
  • Hepatitis __________ is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer in the world.
  • __________ represents the end stage of chronic liver disease in which much of the functional liver tissue has been replaced by fibrous tissue.
Pre lecture quiz
  • C
  • Cirrhosis
  • Kupffer
  • salts
  • urea
liver structure

Blood from hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery mix in sinusoids

The sinusoids empty into central veins, which send the blood to the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava

Liver Structure
liver structur e cont

At the back end of each hepatic cell, bile is released into a canaliculus

The bile is carried to the bile duct and then to the gallbladder

Liver Structur e(cont.)
liver structure cont1

Many sinusoids come together to empty into one vein

The section of the liver emptying into one vein is a lobule

Liver Structure (cont.)

Tell whether the following statement is true or false.

The gallbladder stores bile that has been produced by the liver.



Rationale:The liver makes bile and secretes it into the small intestine via the common bile duct. Excess bile is stored in the gallbladder, where it also enters the small intestine through the common bile duct when it is needed.

metabolic functions of the liver

Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism

    • Sugars  stored as glycogen, converted to glucose, used to make fats
    • Proteins  synthesized from amino acids; ammonia made into urea
    • Fats  oxidized for energy, synthesized, packaged into lipoproteins
Metabolic Functions of the Liver
metabolic functions of the liver cont

Drug and hormone metabolism

    • Biotransformation into water-soluble forms
    • Detoxification or inactivation
  • Bile production
Metabolic Functions of the Liver (cont.)

Which of the following substances does bile make more susceptible to digestive enzymes?

  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • All of the above


Rationale:Bile (produced in the liver) emulsifies fat molecules so that they are easier to digest. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances, in this case bile and fat.


Mr. M had a donut for breakfast.


  • Explain how the sugar in the donut left his small intestine and ended up as fat in his carotid artery, giving the:
    • Anatomical structures
    • Chemical processes
    • Hormones that controlled them

Ms. B was prescribed an oral medication for her skin problem. She took it twice a day.

  • The day after she started the medication, Ms. B drank wine with a friend right after taking the prescribed dosage


  • Ms. B got terribly ill. Why? She said, “I drink that kind of wine all the time.”
liver failure

Hematologic disorders as the liver fails the spleen takes over some of the function of the liver

    • Anemia- due to splenomegaly
    • Thrombocytopenia- due to splenomegaly
    • coagulation defects-
    • leukopenia due to splenomegaly
    • As your spleen grows larger, it begins to filter normal red blood cells as well as abnormal ones, reducing the number of healthy cells in your bloodstream. It also traps too many platelets. Eventually, excess blood cells and platelets can clog your spleen, interfering with its normal functioning.
Liver Failure
liver failure1

Endocrine disorders

    • Fluid retention, hypokalemia, Lack of metabolism of aldosterone, too much remains in the system
    • disordered sexual functions
    • Which hormones would cause these endocrine disorders? Failure of Cholesterol/Steroid formation
Liver Failure
liver failure cont

Skin disorders

    • Jaundice, red palms, spider nevi
  • Hepatorenal syndrome-
    • Deteriorating liver function is believed to cause changes in the circulation altering blood flow in the kidneys. The renal failure of HRS is a consequence of these changes in blood flow
    • Azotemia, increased plasma creatinine, oliguria- decreased production of urine
  • Hepatic encephalopathy- caused by accumulation in the bloodstream of toxic substances that are normally removed by the liver
    • Asterixis, confusion, coma, convulsions
    • Asterixis : An uncontrollable flapping of the hands that becomes noticeable when patients stretch out their arms, palms out, as if stopping traffic.
Liver Failure (cont.)

What causes jaundice?

  • Increased bilirubin levels
  • Anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Leukopenia

Increased bilirubin levels

Rationale:Erythrocytes are normally broken down in the spleen at the end of their life span. The end product of RBC metabolism is bilirubin. Bilirubin is sent to the liver to be metabolized; if the liver is not functioning properly, the bilirubin accumulates and causes jaundice (an abnormal yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes).


Viral hepatitis

Hepatitis A virus (HAV)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Hepatitis B–associated delta virus (HDV)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV)


Which hepatitis viruses are most likely to be the problem in:

  • An asymptomatic drug abuser?
  • A nursing student who has spent the last two months volunteering in an orphanage in Mali?
  • An infant whose mother has hepatitis?




chronic viral hepatitis

Caused by HBV, HCV, and HDV

Principal worldwide cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer

Chief reason for liver transplantation in adults

Chronic Viral Hepatitis
alcoholic liver disease

Fatty liver (steatosis)

    • Liver cells contain fat deposits; liver is enlarged
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
    • Liver inflammation and liver cell failure
  • Cirrhosis
    • Scar tissue partially blocks sinusoids and bile canaliculi
Alcoholic Liver Disease


Rationale:HBV, HCV, and HDV are all virulent strains that may lead to chronic viral hepatitis. HAV is most commonly transmitted by the fecal-oral route (e.g., contaminated food or poor hygiene) and does not typically have a chronic stage (it does not cause permanent liver damage).

effects of portal hypertension
Effects of Portal Hypertension


Ascites &

Caput medusae

cholestasis and intrahepatic biliary disorders

Bile flow in the liver slows down

  • Bile accumulates and forms plugs in the ducts
    • Ducts rupture and damage liver cells
      • Alkaline phosphatase released into blood
  • Liver is unable to continue processing bilirubin
    • Increased bile acids in blood and skin
      • Pruritus (itching)
Cholestasis and IntrahepaticBiliary Disorders
the fate of bilirubin

Hemoglobin from old red blood cells becomes bilirubin

The liver converts bilirubin into bile

Why would a man with liver failure develop jaundice?

The Fate of Bilirubin


bilirubin in


liver links it








biliary tract
Biliary Tract


Hepatic duct

Cystic duct

Common bile duct

Ampulla of Vater

Sphincter of Oddi

Pancreatic duct

disorders of the gallbladder

Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

    • Cholesterol, calcium salts, or mixed
  • Acute and chronic cholecystitis
    • Inflammation caused by irritation due to concentrated bile
  • Choledocholithiasis
    • Stones in the common bile duct
  • Cholangitis
    • Inflammation of the common bile duct
Disorders of the Gallbladder
bile in the intestines

Emulsifies fats so they can be digested

  • Passes on to the large intestine
    • Bacteria convert it to urobilinogen
      • Some is lost in feces
      • Most is reabsorbed into the blood
        • Returned to the liver to be reused
        • Filtered out by the kidneys  urine
Bile in the Intestines
the pancreas
The Pancreas






releases digestive

releases hormones

juices through a

into the blood


to the


exocrine pancreas

Acini produce:

    • Inactive digestive enzymes
    • Trypsininactivator
    • Bicarbonate (antacid)
  • These are sent to the duodenum when it releases secretin and cholecystokinin
  • In the duodenum, the digestive enzymes are activated
Exocrine Pancreas


Rationale:Beta cells of the endocrine pancreas produce insulin; the exocrine pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine through the common bile duct.

biliary reflux
Biliary Reflux

5. Bile in pancreas disrupts tissues; digestive enzymes activated

1. Gallbladder contracts

2. Bile is sent down common bile duct

3. Blockage forms in ampulla of Vater: bile cannot enter duodenum

4. Bile goes up pancreatic duct

autodigestion of the pancreas

Activated enzymes begin to digest the pancreas cells

    • Severe pain results
    • Inflammation produces large volumes of serous exudate hypovolemia
  • Enzymes (amylase, lipase) appear in the blood
  • Areas of dead cells undergo fat necrosis
    • Calcium from the blood deposits in them
      • Hypocalcemia
Autodigestion of the Pancreas
chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

Have signs and symptoms similar to acute pancreatitis

  • Often have:
    • Digestive problems because of inability to deliver enzymes to the duodenum
    • Glucose control problems because of damage to islets of Langerhans
    • Signs of biliary obstruction because of underlying bile tract disorders or duct compression by tumors
Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer