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Electricity Generation from Lignite. Great River Energy John Weeda Director ND Plant Operations. Reliable, low-cost electricity. Great River Energy 2 nd largest utility in MN 28 member cooperatives 850+ employees (MN and ND) 2,751 MW owned generation 469 MW wind

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Electricity generation from lignite

Electricity Generation

from Lignite

Great River Energy

John Weeda

Director ND Plant Operations


Reliable low cost electricity
Reliable, low-cost electricity

  • Great River Energy

    • 2nd largest utility in MN

    • 28 member cooperatives

  • 850+ employees (MN and ND)

  • 2,751 MW owned generation

  • 469 MW wind

  • 4,500+ miles transmission lines

  • $868.5 million 2011 operating revenue

  • $3.35 billion total assets

  • Capital markets


Our triple bottom line
Our triple bottom line…

  • Affordable rates

  • Reliable electric service

  • Environmental stewardship



Types of generation
Types of Generation

  • Baseload power is available for 24-7 demand

    • High-capacity generating plants

    • Plants cost less to operate when at full efficiency

  • Peaking power is available when demand is highest

    • Higher cost to operate, but quick start-up to react to demand changes

  • Intermittent power is available when supply allows

    • Cannot be relied upon to react to level of demand



Lignite
Lignite

A low-cost abundant resource for generation of electricity


Electricity generation from lignite

Fort Union Lignite

Over 2.0 million U.S. customers served – 850,000 Canadian customers


Electricity generation from lignite

Economic Impact

Every 4 megawatts of Lignite-based Electric Generation requires

about 3 jobs


Agenda
Agenda

  • Basics of generating electricity

  • Commercial generating technologies

  • Lignite as a fuel source

  • Controlling emissions

  • Generating electricity

  • Summary


Magnetic field around bar magnet
Magnetic Field Around Bar Magnet

Lines of force

(Flux)

N

S

Magnet


Producing electricity from magnetism
Producing Electricity From Magnetism

Coil

Meter

(Galvanometer)

Magnet


Basics of how electricity is made
Basics of How Electricity is Made

Producing

Electricity!

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

A source

of energy

such as

lignite

To push

blades

on a

shaft



Electricity savings
Electricity Savings

The same amount of electricity used to light up one incandescent light bulb will light up how many LED bulbs?

  • 2 LED bulbs

  • 5 LED bulbs

  • 10 LED bulbs

  • 20 LED bulbs

  • 50 LED bulbs


Electricity savings1
Electricity Savings

The same amount of electricity used to light up one incandescent light bulb will light up how many LED bulbs?

  • 2 LED bulbs

  • 5 LED bulbs

  • 10 LED bulbs

  • 20 LED bulbs

  • 50 LED bulbs


Primary sources of energy for generation of electricity
Primary Sources of Energy for Generation of Electricity

  • Thermal generation - coal fired

  • Nuclear generation - reactors

  • Water - water wheel or water turbine

  • Wind Generators- wind turbines

  • Diesel - diesel engine

  • Natural gas - gas turbine


Wind generators
Wind Generators

Renewable, clean but intermittent


Basics of how electricity is made1
Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

wind

To push

blades

on a

shaft

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

Producing

Electricity!


Electricity generation from lignite

Basin Electric’s

Wind Facilities

PW 1

713 MW

Minot

Baldwin

Edgeley

Wilton

Day County

Hyde County

SMSC Wind

SD WindPartners

Pipestone

Chamberlain

Lakota

PWSD1

Hancock

Superior

Oaklane

Crosswinds


Water hydro generation
Water-Hydro Generation

Renewable, clean and reliable….but expensive and hard to build today


Basics of how electricity is made2
Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

water

To turn

blades

on a

shaft

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

Producing

Electricity!


Wind and water
Wind and Water

  • Renewable but intermittent

  • Load characteristics impact base-load units – follow the wind and water

  • High water or wind generation – base-load units drop off


Diesel generator
Diesel Generator

Used for short term peaking – expensive


Basics of how electricity is made3
Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

a diesel engine

To turn

a shaft

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

Producing

Electricity!


Gas turbine
Gas Turbine

Natural gas is cleaner but pricing is volatile


Electricity generation from lignite

Basics of How Electricity is Made

A source

of energy

such as

burning gas

Which spins

a magnet

inside a

coil of wire

To turn

blades on

a shaft

Producing

Electricity!


Exploring lignite as a fuel source with steam turbine generators
Exploring lignite as a fuel sourcewith steam turbine generators


Most common commercial technology for large scale electrical generation
Most Common Commercial Technology for Large-Scale Electrical Generation

Affordable, reliable, increasingly clean


How is lignite converted into electricity
How is Lignite Converted Generationinto Electricity?


How electricity is made using a steam turbine
How Electricity is Made GenerationUsing a Steam Turbine

Emissions Control

Steam

Equipment

Turbine

Generator

Steam

Pulverized

Coal

Water

Condenser

Boiler

Hot Air



Lignite conveyed into plant
Lignite Generationconveyed into plant


Pulverizers prepare the lignite
Pulverizers Generation prepare the lignite


Lignite fired boiler
Lignite-Fired Boiler Generation

Bunker

Burners

Coal

Feeder

Lift

Line

Pulverizer


Electricity generation from lignite

Photo of pulverized coal Generation

Photo of oil

during startup


2 400 psi steam pressure
2,400 PSI Steam Pressure Generation

2,400

Pounds

2,400 pounds

per square inch






Electricity generation from lignite

  • Plant Transformers Generation

    • Auxiliary transformers for plant power

    • Step-Up transformers for sending power out



Lignite has some challenging characteristics

COAL Generation

COAL

H O

2

Lignite has some challenging characteristics



Other challenging characteristics
Other Challenging Characteristics Generation

  • Parameters of ND Lignite as found in nature

    • Heating value 6,000 to 7,000 BTU / Lb (other coals 8,000 to 12,000 BTU / Lb)

    • Ash content in ND lignite - 6% to 12% as burned

    • Sodium content high in many areas – contributes to challenges

      • Deposits in boiler

    • Other mineral constituents


Dryfining tm c an improve lignite
DryFining GenerationTMCan Improve Lignite

Coal Creek Station

  • Low temperature waste heat is being used to reduce moisture in lignite

  • System segregates unwanted portion of fuel

  • Increases plant efficiency and reduces emissions


Results at coal creek station
Results at Coal Creek Station Generation

  • Over 25 M tons refined

  • Reduced fuel input by approximately 4%

  • Reduced lime consumption by 13%

  • Increased overall plant efficiency by 4%

  • Reduced fuel moisture from 37.2% to 30.1%


Lignite boiler emissions in north dakota are controlled with up to date technology
Lignite boiler emissions in North Dakota Generationare controlled with up-to-date technology



Nd power plants have upgraded environmental controls
ND Power Plants Have Upgraded Environmental Controls Generation

100

More than $800 million has been invested by Basin Electric and Minnkota to retrofit Young 1 and LOS 1 & 2 with scrubbers – now 98% of ND generation is equipped with scrubbers


Electricity generation from lignite

Clean Air States Generation

Source: EPA, May 1, 2012


Sources of electricity from lignite
Sources of Electricity from Lignite Generation

3887 MW Total

1200

1,100

1000

900

800

673

650

MW Capacity

600

420

400

200

100

44

0

Heskett

Leland

Young

Antelope

Lewis &

Coyote

Coal

Olds

Valley

Clark

Creek


Heat power efficiency improvements
Heat & Power GenerationEfficiency Improvements

  • Coal Creek Station sends a mix of primary & waste steam to Blue Flint Ethanol

    • Plant is low-cost producer of ethanol in the United States (no need to build or maintain a boiler)

  • Spiritwood Station is a combined heat & power plant located near Jamestown, ND

    • Will generate electricity for homes & businesses & steam for Cargill Malt

    • When fully utilized, plant will be 66 percent efficient

      • Compared to 30 to 35 percent efficient for most coal-based power plants


A rule of thumb
A Rule of Thumb Generation

Capacity Requirement =

2 KW per person

North Dakota

650,000 persons X 2 KW per person

= 1,300,000 KW or 1,300 MW


Estimated demand
Estimated Demand Generation

  • Bismarck / Mandan - 190 MW

  • Fargo / Moorhead - 350 MW

  • St. Cloud - 335 MW

  • Minneapolis / St. Paul Area - ???? MW

    1. 500 MW 2. 1,000 MW

    3. 3,500 MW 4. 6,000 MW


Estimated demand1
Estimated Demand Generation

  • Bismarck / Mandan - 190 MW

  • Fargo / Moorhead - 350 MW

  • St. Cloud - 335 MW

  • Minneapolis / St. Paul Area - 3. 3,500 MW


Electricity generation from lignite

About one-fifth of MN’s electricity comes from ND -- the percentage is much higher in rural MN


Summary
Summary percentage is much higher in rural MN

  • Lignite is a low-cost, abundant resource for the generation of electricity that is beneficial for the region

  • Lignite is a secure and reliable source of energy

  • Lignite-based power plants are in compliance with all federal ambient air quality standards


Electricity generation from lignite

Questions percentage is much higher in rural MN

???