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CH 2 OH. GLYCOLYSIS. FERMENTATION. O. Homolactic Fermentation PYR + NADH  Lactic Acid + NAD NET GAIN = 1 NAD. Lactic Acid. OH. NADH NAD +. Pyruvate. OH. GLUCOSE. OH. H. Homolactic. CH 3 -C-COO - O. CH 3 -C-COO - OH. OH. ATP ADP. Kinase. CO 2. CH 2 O(P).

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  1. CH2OH GLYCOLYSIS FERMENTATION O Homolactic Fermentation PYR + NADH  Lactic Acid + NAD NET GAIN = 1 NAD Lactic Acid OH NADHNAD+ Pyruvate OH GLUCOSE OH H Homolactic CH3-C-COO- O CH3-C-COO- OH OH ATP ADP Kinase CO2 CH2O(P) NADHNAD+ Acetaldehyde O ETOH NADHNAD+ Pyruvate Ethanolic H CH3-C-COO- O CH3-CH2-OH CH3-C O GLUCOSE-6-P OH OH OH Ethanolic Fermentation PYR + NADH  Acetaldehyde + NAD + CO2 +NADH  ETOH + NAD NET GAIN = 2 NAD OH 2, 3 Butanediolic Pyruvate Pyruvate Isomerase + CH3-C-COO- O CH3-C-COO- O FRUCTOSE-6-P CH2O(P) O CO2 CH2OH CO2 OH OH C-CH3 O CH3-C O Kinase ATP ADP 2, 3 Butanediolic Fermentation 2PYR + 2NADH  Acetoin + NAD + 2 CO2 +2NADH  2, 3 Butanediol + 2NAD NET GAIN = 4 NAD FRUCTOSE-1,6 Di-Phosphate 2NADH 2NAD+ CH2O(P) O CH2O(P) OH OH CH3-C-C-CH3 O Acetoin OH H Adolase 2NADH 2NAD+ DiOH Acetone Phosphate (3C) P-Glyceraldehyde (3C) OH OH 2, 3, Butanediol CH3-C-C-CH3 H H GLYCOLYSIS 1 GLU + 2ATP + 2NAD = 2PYR + 4ATP + 2NADH2 NET GAIN = 2 ATP 1, 3, P-Glyceric acid NAD+ NADH2 ADP + Pi ATP Kinase TCA Acetyl CoA + 3NAD + 1 FAD + 1GTP = 3 NADH + 1FADH2 + GTP + CO2 MULTIPLY THE ABOVE BY TWO 2 P-Glyceric acid x2 Isomerase Isocitric Acid (6C) NAD+ NADH2 CO2 Enol Pyruvate ADP + Pi ATP Kinase Citric Acid άKetoglutarate Acid (5C) COO- -CH2-CH2-C-COO- O Coenzyme A NAD+ NADH2 Acetyl CoA Pyruvate CO2 TOTAL GAIN: 8 H+ 2 GTP NAD+ NADH2 x2 CH3-C-COOH O CH3-C-S-CoA O Oxaloacitic Acid (4C) COO- -CH2-C-COO- O Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA/ Krebs Cycle) CO2 Dehydrogenase Succinyl CoA PYRUVATE ACTIVATION GDP+ GTP *First energy-producing step Malate Acid PYRUVATE ACTIVATION 2 PYR + 2NAD + 2CoA = Acetyl CoA + 2NADH2 + 2CO2 Succinate NAD+ NADH2 FAD+ FADH2 Fumorate Acid ELECRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM (RESPIRATION / OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Anaerobic phosphorylation end-products (instead of H2O) H H H Ox Red Ox Red Ox Red Ox ETS 16 NADH from glycolysis need to be reduced. NH3 H2S +3 +2 H2O O2 FMN Fes CoQ Cyt b Cyt c Cyt a1 Cyt a3 +2 +3 H2 Red Ox Red Ox Red Ox Red NO2 SO4 ADP ATP ADP ATP ADP ATP ATPase ATPase ATPase

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