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CSI Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing: How Manufacturing Failures are Investigated Katie Stewart – Technical Training Manager
Biopharmaceuticals • What are Biopharmaceuticals? • Protein or nucleic acid based pharmaceutical therapeutics • Produced by means other than: 1) Direct extraction from a biological source 2) Or chemical synthesis • Biopharmaceutical examples • Recombinant protein – Insulin from E.coli • Antisense DNA – blocks protein production • Monoclonal Antibody – to work with immune system
Example of an Antibody Pharmaceutical • BENLYSTA is a Monoclonal Antibody • Treatment for Lupus (autoimmune disease) • Controls immune system
How do we create new Biopharmaceuticals? Various types of cells can be used to produce biopharmaceuticals Mammalian/Animal – typically used for antibody production Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (primarily used by HGS) Pichia pastoris Plant Bacteria Insect 4
How do we create new Biopharmaceuticals? Gene Nucleus of cell where the DNA exists Cell A “gene,” which codes for the drug product (protein or antibody) is inserted into a cell’s DNA
How do we create new Biopharmaceuticals? Cell The cell then secretes the product outside of itself The drug product (protein or antibody) is made by the cell using the inserted DNA and the cells machinery (inside the cell) through several steps
Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals Production Product Cells Upstream Production Cells are grown to large quantities to produce a lot of product Downstream (Purification) Product is collected, purified (cleaned) and concentrated (large to small volume) through multiple 7
Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals - Upstream Filter Centrifuge Media Prep START Vial Thaw / Inoculum Expansion 50-Liter Bioreactor Filtration 500-Liter Bioreactor 5,000-Liter Bioreactor 20,000-Liter Bioreactor FINISH Material is Transferred to Purification -“Downstream”
What is a Bioreactor? An apparatus for growing organisms (yeast, bacteria, or animal cells) Controls environment around cells - temperature, pH, and oxygen levels Create homogeneous environment (same throughout) environment by constantly stirring the contents.
Deviations • Deviation – Any variance that may have the potential to affect the identity, strength, quality or purity of a product • FDA Regulation - thorough deviation investigations must be conducted Why investigate? • Consequences of incomplete investigations: • No FDA approval • Loss of hundreds (+) jobs • Unmet patient needs • Impact to shareholders ($$$$$$) • Endangering of patients • Impure or potentially dangerous product
Investigation Process Outline • Define the problem • Brainstorm potential causes • Investigate potential causes • Identify cause • Implement corrections
1. Define the Problem 5 Steps to Developing a Problem • Describe the problem in terms of 5 factors: • What is the problem? • Where is it observed? • When is (was) it occurring? • What is the magnitude of the problem (Trend or Extent)? • What might have been the cause?
2. Brainstorm Potential Causes • Fishbone - Investigation Tool • List potential causes under the following 6 categories • Man (& Woman), • Machine, • Mother nature, • Methods, • Materials, • Measures
3. Investigate Potential Causes4. Determine Root Cause From the Fishbone list gather all of the facts to determine whether each item is or is not the root cause • Photo(s) • Material affected • Operator Interviews • Equipment Condition and Maintenance • Training Records • Recent Changes • Documentation and Procedures
5. Implementing Corrections • Corrective and Preventative Actions • Corrective Action: Corrects the root cause • Preventative Action: Ensure the deviation does not reoccur • Example: A procedure was incorrectly written and caused the test to fail • Corrective Action - Revise the procedure • Preventative Action - Review all documents in the area to ensure they are accurate and complete
Fishbone Example Problem: The presence of bacteria was found in a sterile cell culture solution in a bioreactor • Man • Procedures weren’t followed • Operators were not trained • Mother Nature • Cleanliness of room • Power outage • Machine • Equipment not sterile • Poor equipment condition • Broken controller • Measures • Temperature probe broken • False positive bacteria result • Materials • Solution sterility • Cell culture sterility • Filter integrity • Bioreactor Bag & line integrity • Methods • Procedures weren’t clear • Process flaw • Deviations occurred