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Role of Human PapillomaVirus infection and other co factors in the aetiology of Head and Neck Cancer in Europe and India
Block Details : • Total number of blocks received in RGCB –1004 • Different sites from which we received the blocks are: • Ambilikkai -148 • Bangalore- 344 • Guwahati-346 • Barshi-156 • Trivandrum -10
Serum transferred to RGCB -540 (RCC, Trivandrum) • Total number of blocks sectioned -69 • Blocks returned back to Bangalore after sectioning: 25 • Blocks take n to IARC: Prospective-68(Ambilikkai), Retrospective-80(Ambilikkai) • Guwahati -40 • Total : 188 • Total number of shavings taken to IARC: 116 tubes and 13 boxes
Oral Saline washouts : • Pune: 320 • Ambilikkai:216 • Barshi: 341 • DNA isolated: 877
Head and Neck Cancer is the 6th common malignancy reported worldwide with approximately 6,50000newcases and 3,50000 deaths are reported annually • Cancers of the head and neck include cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, salivary glands and nasal passage • The prevalence of HPV in oral cavity, larynx and hypopharynxappears to be considerably lower • Oral cancer subtype of HNC(85%) • Several types of oral cancer ,around 90% squamous cell carcinoma originating in the tissue that line mouth and lips
Causative factors of oral cancer: • Alcohol abuse, radiation exposure, tobacco use, poor nutrition and poor hygiene • HPV is considered to be one of the factor • Symptoms include lump or sore that does not heal, difficulty in swallowing, change of hoarseness in the voice
Human papilloma virus: • Papillomaviridae family, double stranded DNA virus, infects cutaneous/mucosal surfaces • Infects basal layer of the skin • Genome: 8000basepairs, divided into 3 main domains a noncoding URR, an early region with ORF,and late region encoding capsid proteins • E6 and E7 binds to the tumor supressor gene pRb and p53
Objective of the study: • To address the crucial still unanswered questions on HNC aetiology with particular focus on the role of HPV infection • To determine whether HPV interact with additional HNC risk factors in Europe and Indian population • To know prevalence of DNA/RNApositivity in oral specimens and also to explore novel screening stratergies that could be broadly used in clinical routine
Materials and Methodology: • Total study size 2000 cases and 2000controls • Cases include cancers of the oral cavity , oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx • Samples include serum, oral saline wash and formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue
Methodology: • Serology • Genotyping • Immunohistochemistry • Luminexxmap technology
Genotyping: • The process of determining difference in the genetic makeup of an individual by examining the individual DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing to another individual sequence for reference • Luminexxmap technology for detecting 19 high risk HPV types (16,18,26,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,70,73,82)and 2 low risk hpv types(6,11) • The assay includes Beta globin gene to evaluate the presence and quality of extracted DNA
Outline • Luminex® xMAP Technology