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Digital Preservation: Store & Protect. Laurie Sauer Information Technologies Librarian Knox College lsauer@knox.edu. http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=295. Steps. IDENTIFY the types of digital content you have.

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Digital Preservation: Store & Protect


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    1. Digital Preservation: Store & Protect Laurie Sauer Information Technologies Librarian Knox College lsauer@knox.edu http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=295

    2. Steps • IDENTIFY the types of digital content you have. • SELECT what portion of your digital content will be preserved. • STORE your selected content for the long term. • PROTECT your content from everyday threats and emergency contingencies. • MANAGE and implement requirements for long term management. • PROVIDE access to digital content over time.

    3. Digital objects may be stored, but are they being preserved? Entrance to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Svalbard_seed_vault_IMG_8750.JPG

    4. Well-managed Collections Characteristics of well-managed and well-preserved collections: • Multiple copies in at least 2 locations • Common (or normalized) file formats • Basic information about each deposit - Minimal metadata for objects (you define) • Controlled and known storage of content Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    5. Number of Copies • How many copies are enough for you? • Minimum: 2 copies in two locations • Optimum: 6 copies • Storage factors: • Video files are too large to store 6 copies • Possible legal restrictions • Types of media used for storing the content Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    6. Types of files • Common or normalized file formats • Uncompressed or lossless compression • Non-proprietary formats

    7. Common or Normalized File Formats Follow recommendations set by leading organizations • NARA’s Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access – TIFF format is the “ ‘De facto’ raster image format used for master files.” • http://www.archives.gov/preservation/technical/guidelines.html • Sustainability of Digital Formats Planning for Library of Congress Collections -- The MP3 sound file format is “Generally used for final-state, end-user delivery.” And, “General preference for preservation-oriented recorded sound is WAVE_LCPM. For compressed sound, MP3 is acceptable, especially at data rates of 128 Kb/s (mono) or 256 Kb/s (stereo) or higher.” • http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml

    8. file + metadata digital object Maize seed samples, CIMMYT germplasm bank http://www.flickr.com/photos/cimmyt/5888068498/ Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    9. Metadata: Data About Data • How do you know what an object is? Metadata uniquely identifies digital objects • How do you use content in the future? Metadata makes digital objects understandable • How do you know an object is authentic? Preservation metadata allows objects to be traced over time Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    10. Metadata uniquely identifies digital objects From the Tropicos database, Missouri Botanic al Garden http://www.tropicos.org/Image/26968

    11. Metadata makes digital objects understandable for the future SecalecerealeL. Cereal rye http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=SECE

    12. One-Way Encryption b43efderwkl3jh7834 How do you know an object is authentic? • Fixity checking allows you to know if a file has changed over time. One-Way Encryption Different hash means the file has changed 845kjsnlkdrkjhndgiu5 Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    13. Exercise: Consider Metadata • How do you know what an object is? Metadata uniquely identifies digital objects • How do you use content in the future? Metadata makes digital objects understandable • How do you know an object is authentic? Preservation metadata allows objects to be traced over time

    14. Storage Media Options Australia plants seeds in Norway's doomsday vault http://www.theage.com.au/environment/australia-plants-seeds-in-norways-doomsday-vault-20110111-19mpm.html Offline (CDs, tape)* Online, nearline Hosted, collaborative services (e.g. MetaArchive) Cloud storage Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    15. Cloud Storage • Seek reviews, ask colleagues about their experiences with services • Decide which files to include in the backup • Test the system regularly

    16. What drives storage decisions? • Immediate Costs • Quantity (size and number of files) • Number of copies • Media (life span, availability) • Other resources • Expertise (skills required to manage) • Services (local vs. hosted) • Partners (achieving geographic distribution) • Institutional constraints (e.g., legal restrictions) Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    17. Organization matters! • Create a directory structure that is meaningful • Group like things together • Consider how you (or your successor) will want to find things in the future • Keep separate record of metadata Gene Banks Pay Big Dividends to Agriculture, the Environment, and Human Welfare Johnson RC PLoS Biology Vol. 6, No. 6, e148 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060148 Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    18. Store: Action Items • Begin applying appropriate metadata to the files you will be storing • Organize files + metadata (objects) • Determine a budget for your storage needs • Investigate storage media and services, e.g., external hard drives, cloud storage

    19. Steps • IDENTIFY the types of digital content you have. • SELECT what portion of your digital content will be preserved. • STORE your selected content for the long term. • PROTECT your content from everyday threats and emergency contingencies. • MANAGE and implement requirements for long term management. • PROVIDE access to digital content over time.

    20. What are we protecting content from? • Change and loss – accidental and intentional • Obsolescence – as technology evolves • Inappropriate access – e.g., confidential data • Non-compliance – standards and requirements • Disasters – emergencies of all kinds Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    21. Storage media can fail or go obsolete.

    22. Things can go wrong! http://www.returntofilm.com/index.php/2010/04/

    23. Everyday Protection • Know where your content is located • Onsite and offsite; online and offline • Know who can have access to it • DP staff, IT staff, others? http://www.flickr.com/photos/libbyrosof/2592450371/ Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    24. Readiness Proper planning should allow you to: • Prevent – undesirable outcomes • Predict – most likely risks and threats • Detect – errors, problems, damage • Respond – with appropriate measures • Repair – damage or possible loss Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    25. Risk Management Steps to protect your content: • Identify possible risks • Define those risks (nature and scope) • Assess potential impact (possible damage) • Develop appropriate, feasible responses (plans) • Respond to risks, threats (implement plans) Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    26. Disaster Planning Resources Digital Preservation Outreach & Education

    27. Action Items • Document steps taken to protect your digital content—have a plan! • Create policies regarding who can access your stored digital content • Include in your disaster plan steps to respond to an emergency surrounding your digital content

    28. Thank you! Laurie Sauer Information Technologies Librarian Knox College lsauer@knox.edu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sunflower_seedlings.jpg All images used in this presentation were used with permission.