The Platypus Venom. Where does it come from? What is it composed of? What are these effects ?. What is a Platypus ?. endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania One of the only mammals that lay eggs One of the only mammals to produce venom. Isn’t it cute ?.
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The Platypus Venom Wheredoes it come from? What is it composed of? What are these effects?
Whatis a Platypus ? • endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania • One of the only mammals that lay eggs • One of the only mammals to produce venom Isn’t it cute ?...
Where does the venom come from? Only the male produces it Crural glands Spurs on their hind limbs Production of the venom rises during the breeding season used as an offensive weapon to assert dominance during this period. Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platypus_venom
Symptons of the envenomation • a severe localized response featuring intense pain • hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to pain) during days or even weeks. • plasma extravasation (swelling due to fluid entering the tissue from blood vessels) • It could kill a dog Source : http://www.drugsandpoisons.com/2007/01/toxins-from-mammals.html
Whatitiscomposed of? At least 19 peptide/protein components : -2 C-type natriuretic peptides (OvCNPa and OvCNPb). - 4 defensin-like peptides (DLPs).
Component : C-type natriuretic peptides • C-type natriuretic peptides are naturally produced by endothelial cells (form the innermost layer of blood vessels) in mammals and have been found in brain, intestine, and kidney. • Primary function : to regulate blood flow by causing vasodilatation (enlarge blood vessels). • Also found in the venom of the South American pit viper venemous effect Source : http://www.drugsandpoisons.com/2007/01/toxins-from-mammals.html
Defensins • In general : They are active against bacteria, fungi and many viruses. • For the Platypus : they may have a role in mediating the toxic effects of the venom instead. • The defensin proteins are produced by the immune system of the Platypus. Source : http://www.drugsandpoisons.com/2007/01/toxins-from-mammals.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defensin
A few more thing? ... • Why the Platypus is not affected by its own venom ? • All the molecules which have a toxic effect have been found and isolated ? Researchers are studying the platypus venom effect on humans